Comparison of Two Populations

Comparison of Two Populations

Project description
Select a new dataset or use the same data that you used in your first project and compare two
populations. You can have comparison of independent samples or paired observations. Give a
short description of your data, construct confidence intervals, and perform hypothesis testing.
Give a summary of your findings in a two-page report.


frames for change

frames for change

answer the following question:
I write about five pages regarding “organization change” and now I am about writing the frame of change that I would like to include in my project. I attached the word file(Organizational improvement change project).
Analyze of the four frame model of Bohlman & Deal to your organizational settings. Analyze your change case emphasizing how the frames impact the success or the failure of the change and the change agent leader.
Please concentrate on these chapter:
1. Structural frame.
2. Human resource frame
3. The political frame
4- Symbolic frame.
You can also look at pages 325-332 & 355, 391 & 399.

The book that you have to use for this article is “Reframing Organization” fifth Ed. by Bolman & deal (2013).
How to find the book:
1. Go the Web: (

2. Then click on the “Reframing Organization” and start to read the chapters I motions above.


Choose ONE contemporary communication technology (Facebook) and discuss the co-constitution of its development from its initial design to its eventual adoption and use.

Order Description

The contemporary communication technology in this essay is “Facebook”.
It should talk about how particular communication technologies are biased (or predisposed) toward specific forms of cultural development. That is to say, a given technology may possess a set of characteristics that facilitate the reorganization of society in a certain way. However, human agency is still a necessary component of any technology. In using a technology, users may apply their own values and practices to arrive at outcomes that were not envisioned by the technology’s designers. Choose ONE contemporary communication technology (Facebook) and discuss the co-constitution of its development from its initial design to its eventual adoption and use. Be sure to highlight the freedoms and limits of human agency in the description of the technology’s development.

Thesis should be something like ……how Facebook has turned from social network (people can make more friends on Facebook) into some kind of politics promotion platform.

Protesters make event page on Facebook as a promotional platform
People can post political status on Facebook freely; therefore, Mainland China has blocked Facebook in China.
Egypt Internet revolution: use Facebook page to bring attention

*use the examples above to support the thesis
*provide introduction, body paragraph, subtitles, and conclusion
*arial 12 pt, 1inch margins
*references: APA 6th edition format


Employment at Will

Employment at Will

Chap 20-  Questions 2 & 3:
Write a paper (500-750 words) that addresses the Review Questions 2 and 3 in chapter 20 (legal aspects of health care administration (11thed), Pogzar).   Include a rationale for your answers.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines 6th.

2. Using the hospital as a setting, give two examples of what would violate the NLRA.
3. How do patients’ rights come into play during a strike?

Week 6-  Lecture Notes:    Employment at Will
This module examines the various laws, rules, and regulations that govern the aspects of employment in health care. It covers the concept of employment at will with particular focus on when it is overridden by other legislation; issues around hiring and termination of employment; life with unions and the regulations that manage the relationship between an employer and a union; and a general summary of labor laws that affect health care entities.

Employment at Will
The concept of employment at will basically states that an individual’s employment with a company can be terminated at any time, without specified reason, by either the employer or the employee. Most people think employment at will is employers terminating employees for no reason and without redress. The concept that the employee may terminate the relationship without a reason at any time is frequently missed; however, it happens every time an employee issues a notice of resignation. In addition, the concept of termination without cause by the employer is not realistic. Employers must generally show cause for termination for poor performance, although they can dissolve the job and conduct a layoff for financial reasons.

There are clear public policy exceptions to employment at will. An employee cannot be terminated for reporting patient abuse, for example, since health care employees are mandated by law to report such actions. They are also mandated by statute to report child or vulnerable person abuse, and their jobs are protected if they do. Whistleblower laws also protect employees if they disclose wrong-doing in the organization to a public entity or to someone with enforcement authority. However, such a report needs to involve a suspected violation of law, gross mismanagement, gross waste of funds, abuse of authority, or substantial and specific danger to the public health and safety. Idle reports without documentation or valid evidence are not protected.

Another public policy is protection against retaliatory, or wrongful discharge. This protects employees against arbitrary and capricious discharge, requires that there be “for cause” evidence, and must tie back to an action the employee took that upset the employer or its representatives. For example, if an employee complains of harassment on the job from a supervisor or person in authority and is fired days later for “substandard performance,” the employer must present a strong basis of documentation over time of specific examples of the poor performance, evidence of feedback, and corrective action from the manager, and documentation of lack of employee improvement. Absent these key elements, the firing could be deemed retaliatory in response to the employee’s complaint.

Hiring and Job Performance
There is a legal body of requirements regarding fair and equitable hiring of employees. The effective organization will have clear and specific policies for hiring employees, including clear and specific job descriptions that have been validated for accuracy; list specific criteria reflecting the skills and abilities needed to perform each specific job; and include salary ranges benchmarked to fair market value. Along with the hiring criteria, clear hiring policies also need to protect the employer’s right to make changes in the job description when there is need.

The application process for hiring must be designed to realistically determine the qualifications of applicants and how they fit the job requirements. This requires an application form that specifies information directly relevant to the job and does not request information that is not relevant, such as race, age, and marital status. These components may place an individual into a category that is protected against discrimination, and any job application must be blind to these components unless they can be proven to be directly relevant to successful performance on the job. A strong Human Resources department will validate every data point on an application to ensure that it is relevant to the job or is appropriate to meet a regulatory requirement, such as history of criminal behavior.

All hiring criteria must be directly tied to the requirements of the job description. For example, if the job requires lifting heavy weights on a regular basis, the criteria may include the ability to lift 50 pounds above the shoulders, but it cannot include “men only.” In nursing positions, it may be tempting to require that all nursing applicants have a bachelor’s degree in nursing (BSN). However, if an associate degree (AD) nurse applies and is rejected, the employer would have to demonstrate what specific criteria necessary for the performance of the job was met by the BSN and not the AD. This will be hard to do for the average nursing role, since AD graduates perform these roles with great success across the country. A more relevant requirement would be to mandate a BSN or appropriate BS degree for all management positions, since it can be shown that this level of preparation includes management skill training which is not true of the AD curriculum in general.

Since hospitals are responsible for the acts of their employees through respondeat superior, it is essential that appropriate background checks are performed. This must include a check for civil or criminal penalties in order to assure that employees are not predisposed to commit illegal acts. Reference checks are another important component. It is very important to ensure that someone talks to the last employer of record. Some facilities even require a credit history in order to validate all employers of record and to confirm the last employer listed on the application form. Most employers, however, will not release performance history, but will only confirm prior employment and dates of hire and termination. The smart reference checker asks, “Is this employee eligible for rehire?” In many cases, former employers will verify the employee is eligible for rehire if it is true. If the response is no or an inability to answer, it indicates the need for more in-depth investigation. However, the “rehire” question can be tricky in that former employers as a matter of policy will not answer the question as a defense against possible future litigation. Another approach is to ask the candidate to share copies of their last two performance appraisals. Some candidates will self-screen out of the hiring process upon this request, but this data is generally more valid than personal references provided by the candidate.

Finally, an effective organization has a strong performance appraisal and management system. Research has shown that people perform more effectively in their job when given feedback, both praise and suggestions for improvement. The effective performance appraisal system provides both. Feedback should be tied to specific job accountabilities drawn from the job description in addition to special and specific work the employee may have done in the appraisal period. In general, if an employee is being terminated for poor job performance the evidence and documentation of performance management must be found in the appraisal system.

Unfortunately, there are employees who cannot or will not perform the job acceptably. Some simply don’t have the needed skill sets, while others may have attitudinal or motivational deficiencies. The decision of whether they are performing the job must be made in the context of the requirements in the job description and the performance appraisal, and not because the manager has a personal reaction to the employee. In order to protect the organization from legal action for wrongful discharge, the organization must have the following written policies and procedures and have made them available at hire to the employee:

1.      A policy that specifies how the performance appraisal system works, including the time frame of the appraisal process, the approach, and the parties accountable for performing it;
2.      A policy that specifies how the corrective action process is implemented and followed, and examples of the behaviors that can trigger corrective action; and
3.      A policy that specifies the due process and grievance rights of the employee.

When implementing the corrective action process, the one essential component is effective, specific, focused documentation. When an employee engages in action that is unacceptable in the work place, the first step in most processes is a verbal counseling. Many managers will provide verbal counseling but forget to document the conversation in the employee’s file. That is an important step. If the employee continues the behavior, the next step is generally a written corrective action. When writing a corrective action, it is essential to report facts, not hearsay, rumors, or other vague findings. For example, documenting that “on Monday, March 21, 2007, you said_________ to your co-worker, Sally, who found that offensive. The witnesses present, Joe, John, and Lula, confirmed that they heard you say that. This is unacceptable since our policy requires treating co-workers with respect” is more effective than “I’ve heard that you have made offensive comments to female staff. Don’t do it again.” If the employee continues the behavior, more specific instances must be documented and a final written warning given. At this point, it is a good idea to have a witness present for the conversation with the employee and to involve Human Resources in the preparation of the final warning. After the final written warning, if the employee continues the behavior, termination is a viable option.

There are some circumstances wherein the corrective action process does not have to have all the steps completed. In a situation where the employee broke the law, put a patient in danger, took drugs while working, and other major issues, direct and immediate termination may be the only acceptable response. In these situations, the Human Resource department must be involved; if the employee holds a license to practice, the action may have to be reported to that board or to state agencies.

When an employee is terminated, he or she may be able to file for unemployment benefits. Not everyone who leaves a job will qualify, though. If the employee committed a crime or engaged in unprofessional behavior, unemployment benefits may not be granted. The facility may sometimes oppose the employee’s application for unemployment due to the circumstances of the departure. Generally in layoff situations, the employee will qualify and the facility will not oppose it. The information on unemployment should be given to the employee as part of the termination, when one occurs, along with his or her due process rights of appeal or grievance.

When taking an employee through the corrective action process, it is critical that the steps of your facility’s policy are followed explicitly. There must be substantial and accurate documentation of specific instances of failure to observe the rules. The documentation should be able to substantiate that the corrective actions and termination were not arbitrary, capricious, discriminatory, or retaliatory. Human Resources representatives are expert in these areas, and can be of great value to the health care administrator having to go through this unpleasant experience.
Dealing with Labor Unions in Health Care Organizations
In 1935, Congress passed the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) which defines unfair labor practices and establishes processes for hearings in cases of allegations being made. It established the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), which is responsible for investigating claims of unfair labor practices and for regulating elections regarding unions. Employees have the right to engage in collective bargaining and to form a union to do so. If the employer contests the attempt to form a union, an election process is required. Current law requires a secret ballot, and the period leading up to the election is a time often filled with contention and difficulty, as both the union representatives and the health care entity’s management attempt to get their messages out to employees. The NLRB is responsible to monitor activities and react to allegations of unfair labor practices during this period. It is very important for the health care administrator to be fully conversant with the regulations that impact this difficult period.

When a union forms, there has typically been a growing frustration between employees and employers that escalates when employees feel that they are not listened to, that their work environment is increasingly negative, that management does not care about them or may be actively hostile, and that they have nothing to lose by attempting to form a union to address their grievances. Organizations with healthy workplace relationships between managers and staff, where people see their leaders and can talk to them regularly, and where staff feels supported and valued rarely see active union organizing efforts. It is also important to note that the entire organization does not have to be upset to get a union drive started; a single department may initiate it and try to get others to come on board. Conducting regular employee opinion surveys, monitoring and taking action on the results where problems are identified, and communicating with staff regularly and in a transparent and trustworthy manner on issues that are good and bad are all approaches that can immunize against the employee dissatisfaction that leads to unionization.

If a union drive begins, it is important to know the respective rights of each side.

Rights of Employees
4.      Employees have the right to organize and bargain collectively with employer’s leadership;
5.      Employees are free to solicit and distribute union information in non-working hours;
6.      Employees have the right to picket; and
7.      Employees have the right to strike if they feel their issues are not being adequately addressed.
Rights of Management
8.      Management has the right to receive a 10-day advance notice of a strike;
9.      Management has the right to hire replacement workers for strikers;
10.  Management has the right to restrict union organizing and other activities to prescribed areas in the facility and grounds;
11.  Management has the right to prohibit union activity during working hours; and
12.  Management has the right to prohibit supervisors and other management personnel from participating in union activity.

As noted above, employers may prohibit union organizing activities on paid work time and on the premises of the facility, but they cannot interfere with activities offsite, while the employees are on break, or at meals. During an organizing effort, unions typically put out a great deal of printed information for employees, including cards to sign. Many employees do not read the cards prior to signing them, but if enough employees sign cards the union can trigger an election. It is not unheard of for employees to be duped into signing cards by a union representative who tells the employees that they are only signing to express interest in a union or to get more information. In fact, the cards generally indicate that the signature empowers the union to represent the employee in a union drive. Employers can provide counter-balancing information and education to offset the union’s publications. Unions may make promises to employees to “get them better salaries and working conditions,” but the reality is that the union cannot compel the facility to do anything except bargain. Many employees become confused and upset during this period, and it is a major distraction for the leadership team, since all other activities will take a back seat to addressing the union campaign.

If the union wins the election and is certified, certain other regulations come into play:

13.  The employer cannot discriminate against an employee solely on the basis of his or her union membership;
14.  The employee is entitled to have a union representative with them in any discussion with a manager;
15.  The employer must bargain in good faith with representatives of the union in collective bargaining;
16.  The employer may not dominate or control the union, or take a position in support of one union in the midst of a competition between two unions to win the election;
17.  The employer may not offer financial assistance or exclusive access to the work site to one union when it is in competition with another to win the election;
18.  The union cannot coerce or threaten employees, particularly if the employees do not support a strike action; and
19.  Neither party can legally breach a contract reached through collective bargaining once it has been signed.

The Norris-LaGuardia Act and a 1974 amendment to the NLRA delineated procedures regarding strikes in health care settings due to the prevailing public interest in seamless provision of health care services. They specify procedures that limit the ability to strike in health care settings and can create a Board of Inquiry to assist arbitrators in resolving differences between the unions and management. This legislation also requires the union to give the health care facility a 90-day written notice before the collective bargaining agreement expires. There must also be a 10-day written notice prior to strike, picket activity, or refusal by union members to work.
Administrators of a health care organization that has a union or is undergoing a union drive to an election need effective legal counsel to ensure that no unfair labor practices allegations against the facility can be substantiated and that opposition to the union drive is legal and grounded in accurate facts. The best option of all is for the organization to create a positive, supportive workplace, in such a way that the union organizers recognize the facility is unlikely to vote for a union.

Other Relevant Labor and Workplace Legislation
There are a number of other laws and statutes that affect the workplace.

The Fair Labor Standards Act
The Fair Labor Standards Act was enacted in 1938 to establish a national minimum wage; overtime for many employees set at 1.5 times the hourly salary; and the maximum worked hours per week (except for exempt staff).

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
Both Acts prevent discrimination in employment and hiring practices on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. This was landmark legislation in the early 70s, when gender was considered a protected category for the first time.

Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA)
This legislation enabled a federal agency to develop and enforce standards on health and safety in the workplace and in specific occupations. Health care facilities must report OSHA violations and injuries to employees if they fall into one of the OSHA categories. As a result of this legislation, many hospitals formed safety committees to ensure that the hospital is in compliance with OSHA and its own policies on workplace safety and health. They may do this through the creation of policies and procedures, regular walking safety rounds, and a variety of workplace inspections and audits. Examples of items that are monitored include exposure of staff to contaminated body fluids, contagious diseases such as tuberculosis or measles, hazardous materials, and radiation. Annual training and competency testing for all staff is an important part of maintaining occupational safety and a healthy workplace environment.

Family Medical Leave Act of 1993
This legislation provides temporary medical leave to employees of up to 12 weeks unpaid (or paid, at the discretion of the employer) in any 12-month period, for the following events:

20.  Birth or care of a child;
21.  Adoption of a child;
22.  Care of an immediate family member with serious health problems; or
23.  Inability to work due to a serious health condition with certification by a physician.
24.  The employee cannot lose their job or health insurance during the FMLA period and must be restored to their current or an equivalent job when they return to work. A twist on this act that has given managers nightmares is the ability to take intermittent FMLA, which may be a day or two at a time. For instance, the parents of a child needing full-time care may want to alternate being home to provide the care for their child.

State Labor Laws
The states each have their own labor laws that address such issues as wages and hours (for instance, states can set minimum wages higher than the Federal minimums, but not lower); child labor laws, to regulate the number of hours and types of jobs that children under 18 may be able to perform; and Workers Compensation, a program to give employees wage benefits when out of work for work-related injuries. It is required that employers provide workers compensation benefits, although the amounts paid vary by state. One of the most common workers compensation injuries in health care is back pain due to the effort in moving patients.

There is extensive legislation, rules, and regulations that impact the work environment in health care settings. It would indeed be a challenge for one who is not an attorney to keep up with all of them. The Human Resources director and staff are experts in various areas of these laws, and should be an administrator’s first resource of choice for questions. If an attorney is required, the organization should be sure to select one with special expertise in employment and labor law.


Statement of Research Interests and Goals for Graduate Admission

Statement of Research Interests and Goals for Graduate Admission

Project description
This statement does not tie you to a specific research project. We use it to identify students who have a mature sense of the type of research they want to pursue in graduate school. We look for students who can think critically and write clearly about a research problem.
Be sure to mention the faculty members you might like to work with and the types of specific projects that interest you. Hint: Dont begin your statement with, Ever since I was a child…
Here is the website of the professor I want to work with during my PhD years.
I am working in her lab right now. My project is about Investigating sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosome evolution in squamates.
The program I intend to apply is focused on Biology and Evolutionary. Here is the outline of my current project:
Squamate sex determination and sex chromosome evolution
The sex chromosomes of mammals, birds, worms, and flies lead to some interested expectations for general sex chromosome evolution. Several genes appear to be conserved in the sex determination pathway of mammals. The specific sex-determining loci in many other vertebrates is unknown. The first goal of this project is to analyze patterns of evolution of genes involved in the sex determining pathway in mammals (and birds)

Project goals:
1.Collect the list of genes involved in sex-determination
c.Other vertebrates (frogs, fish, reptiles)
2.Download the multiple alignment for each gene
a.Identify the NM accession number of the longest transcript in humans
b.Use this NM accession to download multiple alignment from UCSC genome browser
c.Nucleotide sequences
d.Protein sequences
i.Original (with NM ids)
3.Quality control on the multiple sequence alignments
a.Ensuring a triplet number of nucleotides for the nucleotide sequences
b.Mask out internal stop codons (TAA, TAG, TGA)
c.FASTA format (default)
d.Convert to phylip format
4.Compute substitution rates in these genes
a.Phyml (
b.Codeml (part of PAML:
c.Use a fixed topology (relationship between the species).
5.Assess diversity in sex-determining genes
a.Human (1000genomes data)
b.Great Ape Genome Diversity
c.Mouse, and maybe others
6.Summary of the project
a.Methods, results discussion
b.Prepare powerpoint
c.Share for lab meeting
And another outline for my up coming project
Comparative Fertility
A comparative study of rates of evolution in the gene SEMG2, known to be involved in semen coagulation, showed a strong positive correlation between rates of molecular evolution and the level of sperm competition in the species. However, this study was limited to primates only, and it is unknown whether SEMG2 shows a correlation with sperm competition outside of primates. Further, such a comparative study between rates of evolution and levels of sperm competition (both within primates and across mammals) might provide a set of candidate fertility genes.

1.Collect information on sperm competition across animals
a.Make a table of available animal genomes available in the 100-way alignment.
b.Collect information on mating patterns
c.Collect levels of sperm competition for each species with a genome sequence.
i.Testes-to-body mass ratio
2.Assemble a set of candidate fertility genes
a.From a literature search, assemble set of candidate fertility genes.
b.Download multiple-way alignments for these candidate genes.
c.Curate set of candidate genes for quality.
3.Compute substitution rates and correlate
a.Compute substitution rates for each gene (e.g. phyml)
b.Compute phylogenetically corrected correlations (BayesTraits) between substitution rates and levels of sperm competition.
4.Write up results
a.Methods, results discussion
5.Prepare presentation to share results

Alternative approach:
1.Download alignments for all genes.
2.Quality control alignments.
3.Collect data on life history traits for all species.
4.Conduct substitution rate analysis of all genes.
5.Conduct BayesTraits correlation between each gene and each life history trait (TBR, Lifespan, BMR).
6.Rank genes by positive correlation between T-B-R and substitution rate to identify candidate genes for those involved in sexual selection.




Coursework 1:

Using statistical methods for data analysis

Tasks in the coursework:

A series of experimental results have been collected and should be analysed by statistical methods. Data sets will be provided and the task will be to:

(1)    Select adequate statistical methods to analyse the data

(2)    Describe briefly the rationale why a method is reasonable and useful for the problems

(3)    Perform the analysis,

(4)    Answer the question(s) associated with the problems and

(5)    Draw adequate conclusions on the biological problems given

The final results and any conclusions, which can be drawn from the results should be discussed briefly – but conclusively. The report should focus on the clear description, rationale and presentation of the analysis of the data. This is not an essay (!) but it is useful to introduce the question and the main conclusions from the data. The discussions should be short, but clearly define the major conclusions, which can be drawn from the data – or not.


•    Calculations can be done “by hand” using the adequate formulas as presented in the lectures/seminars. They will also be found in textbooks on statistics.

•    Calculations should be limited to adequate decimals.
•    Statistical analysis packages may be used (like SPSS) or available online calculation programs

•    Raw data are also posted for easier use on Blackboard (Excel format)

(>BIO-M209 Coursework > Coursework 1 > File: Coursework 1_Supplementary Data_Raw Data)

•    Tables of critical values for different distributions (t-Test, F-Test, Chi-square test) are found in most textbooks on statistics and freely available programs

•    A selected list of some useful programs and potentially needed tables are also found on


(>BIO-M209 Coursework > Coursework 1 > Coursework 1_Supplementary Data_Tables.Formulas)

Presentation in general:

Do not simply present the calculations, but explain the rationale of using a statistical method and draw adequate biological conclusions from the results. It should state the result, its significance and any other conclusion(s), which may be relevant.

Part 1: Genetics and phenotype of a novel mouse mutant

Introduction: A novel mouse mutant and the corresponding protein, mKIAA058 (in the following ‘KIAA’), was identified and further analysed. In order to understand the functions of this gene/protein, a mouse strain containing a non-functional allele (mKiAA058-; Null-allele) was successfully established. First data indicated an autosomal recessive inheritance as heterozygous (KIAA+/-) as well as homozygous knockout (KIAA-/-) animals were identified. The deficiency of this protein (‘Knockout KIAA’) affects multiple tissues, including skeletal defects (delayed/reduced development of bone and cartilage; growth retardation) as well as a progressive form of vascular degeneration. Later, a corresponding disease in humans was found in a small number of very young patients. The prospects of the patients are not clear at the time and the analysis of the mouse model may provide some hints for the severity of the disease. The analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease are still ongoing and some problems and experiments linked to these studies are given in the following. Statistical tests may be used to answer some of the questions.

Experiments 1 and 2: Genetics

In order to define potential effects of the presence/absence of the KIAA protein on the inheritance patterns, a number of breedings were performed. The genotypes of the parents were known and the genotypes of the litters (age: 14-16 days) were analysed by allele-specific PCR reactions.

Experiment 1:    (Marks: 10)

In three parallel experiments (1.1, 1.2, 1.3), crossings of 5 wildtype males (KIAA+/+) with 10 heterozygous females (KIAA+/-) were started and all litters (given as total number of mice) were genotyped and the numbers of all possible genotypes are given in the following Table 1. All tested mice appear normal and show no altered phenotype at the tested age (day 14-16).

Breeding: male(KIAA+/+) x female(KIAA+/- )

Table 1:    Experiment        1.1    1.2    1.3
Litters    Total number    62        90    98
Genotypes    KIAA+/+    34        37    42
KIAA+/-    28        53    56
KIAA-/-    0        0    0

Experiment 2:    (Marks: 20)

In three parallel experiments (2.1, 2.2, 2.3), crossings of 5 heterozygous males (KIAA+/-) with 10 heterozygous females (KIAA+/-) from experiment 1 were started, all litters were again genotyped (age: day 14-16) and the numbers of mice with all possible genotypes are given in the following Table 2.

Breeding: male(KIAA+/-) x female(KIAA+/- )

Table 2:    Experiment    2.1    2.2    2.3    Sum (2.1-2.3)
Litters    Total    71    84    59
Genotypes    KIAA+/+    21    23    18
KIAA+/-    39    46    35
KIAA-/-    11    15    6

Questions to answer:

(A)    Discuss briefly which type of genetic inheritance would be most adequate to describe the distribution of genotypes?

(B)    Do the distributions of all genotypes (numbers of mice) in experiments 1 and 2 correspond to the expected numbers according to Mendelian laws?

(C)    Are there any differences seen in the amount of Wildtype and Heterozygotes? Are the overall numbers of genotypic normal mice (+/+ and +/-) versus Knockout (-/-) significantly different?

(D)    Are there any further conclusions possible? If yes, what could be possible biological explanations of the observed distribution/s? Which other experiments would be needed?

Experiment 3: Bodyweight of various genotypes    (Marks: 30)

The lack of KIAA seems to affect various organ systems (see before) Therefore, a series of experiments were performed to define the growth of mice with various genotypes. Wildtype (KIAA+/+), heterozygous carriers (KIAA+/-) and homozygous knockouts (KIAA-/-) were analysed for their body weight (in grams: g) at different ages, 10-11 days, 20-22 days and 40-42 days. Only female animals were included in this analysis to avoid gender-specific variability.

The following tables contain the collected raw data.
(Raw data are available: >BIO-M209 >Courseworks >Coursework 1 >2014_Coursework 1_Supplementary Data_Raw data)
Day10-11                Day 20-22                Day 40-42
(Bodyweight; gram)        (Bodyweight; gram)        (Bodyweight; gram)

wt    (+/-)        (-/-)        wt        (+/-)        (-/-)        wt        (+/-)    (-/-)
6.5    6.1        5.7        16        16        14.3        19.8        17.1    14.3

6.9    6.1        6.3        14        15.1        15.7        18.2        17.2    15.9

5.4    6.9        5.8        13.9        14.7        13.9        18.8        17.9    15.1

6.6    5.6        6.5        14.7        14.8        14.7        19.1        17.9    16.1

6.2    6        5.6        16.2        13.7        15.4        17.8        17.8    15.6

5.6    5.6        5.6        15.2        15.5        12.8        18.9        18.4    14.8

6.3    6.3        5.8        14.2        15.7        13.5        16.9        14.4    14.8

6.2    6.4        6.5        15.8        15.2        14.1        17.3        18.7    13.1

6.9    6.1        6.1        16.2        13.4        13.7        17        16.9

5.9    6.3                16.2        15.9                        17.2

6    6.5                15.3        13.8                        18

5.9    6.5                        14.9                        17.8

6.1    6.6                        16.4

6.5                        14.9


Questions to answer:

(A)    Are there differences in the bodyweight of females between genotypes at various ages? Are these differences significant? Which data sets are ‘reasonable’ to be compared? What conclusions could be drawn?

(B)    Which alternative methods could be used to analyse the data? What are the limitations of these methods? Are there additional tests to be done?

(C)    Plot the data in bar diagrams and add adequate labeling and indicate statistically significant differences (eg. if p<0.01)

(D)    What (further) conclusions may be drawn from these results? Discuss briefly in the context of the disease phenotype.

Experiment 4: Comparison to expected normal bodyweight    (Marks: 10)

The mouse strain used in the previous experiments 1-3 represents a c57Bl6 genetic background. From published data of long-term studies at the Jackson Laboratory, USA it is known that mice of this genetic background show a mean body weight of female mice of µ=18,51 g with a standard deviation of s=1,44 g at the age of about 40 days.

Questions to answer:

(A)    Are there any significant differences in the bodyweight of females of any genotype (at 40 days) seen, when compared with previously known data?

(B)    What can be concluded from your result?

Experiment 5: Genotyping    (Marks: 10)

During the initial breeding experiments, litters including 40 mice were genotyped and 24 wildtype and 16 heterozygote females (KIAA+/-) were found. As a faulty batch of clips (used for marking individual mice) was used, during the next 3 weeks the clips either broke or were ripped off by the mice in the cage. Therefore, the genotypes of individual mice were unknown. As only few heterozygotes were needed, a small number of mice were tested, marked and then kept individually in cages. In order to keep the number of tests low, the probability of identifying heterozygotes should be predicted.

Questions to answer:

(A)    If 4 mice were tested, what is the probability that only heterozygotes are contained?

(B)    If 3 mice are tested, what is the probability that none of the heterozygotes is selected?

(C)    How many mice have to be selected that at least 1 heterozygote animal should be contained in the retested group with a probability of more than 95%?

Part 2: Sporadic diseases in a mouse colony    (Marks: 20)

Introduction: Recently, a sporadic appearance of an unusual (potentially infectious?) eye disease (linked with blindness, itching, bleeding in older animals) was detected in some individual mice in a population of mice in the animal house, including the Anxa5 strain. Presently, in various culture rooms are 40 racks (=shelves holding cages) with up to 20 mouse cages. As individual cages contain up to 5-6 mice, each rack may host more than 100 mice. Over a period of 6 months (01/2014-06/2014), the mice were routinely checked and the numbers of cages with at least 1 affected mouse were noted.

Due to space limitations, some racks have to be moved to a clean culture room. The task will be to define numbers of cages which (1) guarantee the survival of the strain (means: sufficient number of mice for breeding) as well as (2) minimize the risk of spreading the disease.

Use an adequate statistical test to calculate the risks of moving infected cages and carrying over the disease. Briefly explain your strategy and the reasons for selecting a calculation method.

Data table:

The table (shown on the next page) includes the number of infected cages per rack. Each rack may contain up to 20 cages. Cages identified as ‘infected cages’ contain at least 1 infected mouse. The dates of testing are indicated.

The table of affected cages is also found in the supplementary data:

(Raw data are available: >BIO-M209 >Courseworks >Coursework 1 >2014_Coursework 1_Supplementary Data_Raw data)

Questions to answer:

(A) Which distribution would be most adequate to describe the probability of events? Define the relevant criteria for your choice.

(B)    When 1 randomly selected rack is moved to a clean room, what is the probability that no affected cages (with diseased mice) are included in this rack? What is the probability that 2 transferred racks contain no cages with diseased animals, respectively?

(C)    What is the probability that individual racks contain 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 cages with affected animals?

Racks    01/2014    02/2014    03/2014    04/2014    05/2014    06/2014
1    0    0    0    0    –    –
2    0    0    0    0    0    –
3    0    2    0    –    –    –
4    0    0    0    0    –    –
5    3    0    0    0    –    –
6    0    0    0    0    –    –
7    0    0    3    0    –    –
8    0    0    0    3    –    –
9    0    0    0    0    0    –
10    0    3    0    0    0    –
11    0    0    0    0    0    –
12    0    –    0    0    0    –
13    1    –    0    0    0    –
14    0    –    –    0    0    –
15    0    –    0    2    0    –
16    0    –    –    0    0    –
17    0    –    –    0    1    –
18    0    0    –    0    0    –
19    0    0    0    0    0    –
20    0    0    0    0    0    –
21    0    0    0    0    0    –
22    0    1    2    0    0    –
23    0    0    0    0    0    –
24    0    0    –    1    0    –
25    1    0    –    0    0    –
26    0    0    –    1    0    –
27    2    0    0    0    0    –
28    0    0    0    0    0    –
29    0    0    0    0    0    –
30    0    0    0    0    0    –
31    0    1    0    0    0    –
32    0    0    –    0    0    –
33    0    0    –    0    0    –
34    –    0    –    0    0    –
35    –    0    –    0    0    –
36    –    0    –    0    –    –
37    –    0    0    2    1    –
38    0    0    0    0    0    –
39    0    0    0    2    0    –
40    0    0    0    0    0    –

Coursework 1:

Marking scheme

Part    Experiment        Max. Marks
Part 1    Experiment 1    Genetics    10
Experiment 2    Genetics    20
Experiment 3    Bodyweight    30
Experiment 4    Bodyweight    10
Experiment 5    Genotypes    10
Part 2    –    Sporadic disease    20

Total            100


Course Project;management trainee

Course Project;management trainee

Order Description

Important request to only use windows 1997-2001 and excel 1997-2011.

Course Project Part A is due. Please see the instructions in the Course Project item under Course Home, as well as the Excel spreadsheet located in Doc Sharing. Also, please visit the related discussion area in Week 5.

You have just been hired as a new management trainee by Earrings Unlimited, a distributor of earrings to various retail outlets located in shopping malls across the country. In the past, the company has done very little in the way of budgeting and at certain times of the year has experienced a shortage of cash.
Since you are well trained in budgeting, you have decided to prepare comprehensive budgets for the upcoming second quarter in order to show management the benefits that can be gained from an integrated budgeting program. To this end, you have worked with accounting and other areas to gather the information assembled below.
The company sells many styles of earrings, but all are sold for the same price—$10 per pair. Actual sales of earrings for the last three months and budgeted sales for the next six months follow (in pairs of earrings):
“See attachment ”
The concentration of sales before and during May is due to Mother’s Day. Sufficient inventory should be on hand at the end of each month to supply 40% of the earrings sold in the following month.
Suppliers are paid $4 for a pair of earrings. One-half of a month’s purchases is paid for in the month of purchase; the other half is paid for in the following month. All sales are on credit, with no discount, and payable within 15 days. The company has found, however, that only 20% of a month’s sales are collected in the month of sale. An additional 70% is collected in the following month, and the remaining 10% is collected in the second month following sale. Bad debts have been negligible.
Monthly operating expenses for the company are given below:

Insurance is paid on an annual basis, in November of each year.
The company plans to purchase $16,000 in new equipment during May and $40,000 in new equipment during June; both purchases will be for cash. The company declares dividends of $15,000 each quarter, payable in the first month of the following quarter.
A listing of the company’s ledger accounts as of March 31 is given below:
“See Attachment”

The company maintains a minimum cash balance of $50,000. All borrowing is done at the beginning of a month; any repayments are made at the end of a month.
The company has an agreement with a bank that allows the company to borrow in increments of $1,000 at the beginning of each month. The interest rate on these loans is 1% per month and for simplicity we will assume that interest is not compounded. At the end of the quarter, the company would pay the bank all of the accumulated interest on the loan and as much of the loan as possible (in increments of $1,000), while still retaining at least $50,000 in cash.
Prepare a master budget for the three-month period ending June 30. Include the following detailed budgets:
• 1.
o a. A sales budget, by month and in total.
o b. A schedule of expected cash collections from sales, by month and in total.
o c. A merchandise purchases budget in units and in dollars. Show the budget by month and in total.
o d. A schedule of expected cash disbursements for merchandise purchases, by month and in total.
• 2. A cash budget. Show the budget by month and in total. Determine any borrowing that would be needed to maintain the minimum cash balance of $50,000.
• 3. A budgeted income statement for the three-month period ending June 30. Use the contribution approach.
• 4. A budgeted balance sheet as of June 30.


Investment Analysis Proposal

Investment Analysis Proposal

Order Description

Objective Outline how you would (and will) use publicly available data and economic analysis to determine
under what circumstances it is worthwhile to invest in Wind Mobile.

Writing Assignment 3: Investment Analysis Proposal
Outline how you would (and will) use publicly avail
able data and economic analysis to determine
under what circumstances it is worthwhile to invest
in Wind Mobile.
Detailed Introduction
In the final assignment for this class you will be
asked to advise an investment firm as to
whether or not – or under what circumstances – to i
nvest into Wind Mobile. You will have to support yo
recommendation with an argument based on economic r
easoning and data. In this assignment you are asked
write a proposal that wins you the consulting contr
act from the investment firm.
To give you specific set-up, imagine you graduated
from the commerce program five years ago. During on
e of
the meet-&-greets at Rotman you met Mr. Liu van Han
ebanker, the founder of the Vancouver-based investm
firm WaiiftLR (which some happy clients claim stand
s for “we are in it for the long run”). Somehow the
re was a
personal connection between you and Mr. van Haneban
ker and he became a mentor of sorts and a friend. T
past summer you had lunch with him in Vancouver whi
le you were on a business trip there. You had an en
conversation about the Canadian Economy in general,
the mis-use of economic analysis, over-emphasis on
performance in the financial investment industry, a
nd the long-run implications of data being availabl
e at almost
zero marginal cost for the demand for the analytica
l skills to interpret the data. Since the lunch you
have been
on the phone more frequently, and you conversation
has turned regularly to the Canadian wireless indus
It’s been about two weeks since your last phone cal
l and on Monday evening you receive the following e
from Mr. van Hanebanker
Dear friend,
When we last talked I predicted a change in Wind Mo
bile’s top dog. You probably saw it in the paper la
st week – Pietro Cordova is the new CEO. Anthony is
still chairman and the main investor. As you know,
he led the buy-out last months, which I think was a
smart move. In any case, Anthony has asked me to
come on board and invest in Wind Mobile. Anthony an
d I go back a long time, but still I don’t want to
jump into something I don’t understand and I would
have no trouble backing out altogether. On the othe
r hand, I understand that Wind Mobile might represe
nt a unique opportunity.
I want to keep this under the radar for now and don
’t want to officially hand it to one of our analyst
s. Can you help me? I need a full-blown report abou
t the
perspective of Wind Mobile. Is there a chance of pr
ofitability in the middle-range future? How would R
oger’s and Bell react to that? What will the regula
do and does anyone have any sense of how Canadian d
emand is likely to behave over the next few years?
The all-critical spectrum auction is coming up
next April. Wind needs cash before then so Anthony
wants us on-board no later than the end of March, m
aybe earlier. But first I need to convince my
partners that investing in Wind Mobile is even some
thing we should be looking into. On Dec 2
, we are meeting off-site, so that would be the per
opportunity for me to discuss it with them. Can you
put together a preliminary report and a proposal f
or a full investment analysis by, say, Nov 27
? Tout your
own horn a little bit, too – you know to get the pa
rtners to buy in to bring in an “outsider” (sorry)
but mostly lay out why it might be profitable and w
hat sort of
data and analysis we need to look at to figure out
whether it will be. The more you can convince them
that it is straightforward and just a matter of you
putting in the hours, the better – since we are und
er a deadline to make the decision.
Sorry for jumping this on you. I wanted to call, bu
t there hasn’t been a quiet moment around here for
days. If you cannot do it, I understand – just let
I hope this email finds you well as always.
You are incredible busy, of course. But you feel ho
nored by the trust Mr.
Hanebanker has put in your analytical skills, and y
ou don’t want to disappoint your
friend and mentor. A quick search through last week
’s business news confirms the
news of Wind Mobile’s change in CEO and you respond
to Mr. Hanebanker to
confirm that you will get him a preliminary report
and proposal by November 27
The final document should

Exceed no more than three pages plus an executive s

Motivate why the wireless industry may be an intere
sting industry to

Outline which questions need to be answered to dete
rmine whether Wind
Mobile might be a good investment choice, and

Explain how, going forward, these questions can be
answered with publicly
available data.

State briefly why you are qualified to complete thi
s analysis.
The writing should be comprehensive, i.e., all majo
r economic aspects you can think of as relevant sho
uld be
covered. It should also be concise, precise, and sp
ecific. For example, use “whether” instead of “whet
her or
not”, use “equals” instead of “is equal to”, and so
forth. Instead of “using data on how usage varies
with income
I will …” or “building on data from the Communicati
ons Monitoring Report I will …” say “using usage da
ta by
income from the CRTC’s Communications Monitoring Re
port I will …”
Be aware that it takes time and several sittings to
complete this assignment. Distinguish between writ
ing (no
evaluation, no judgment) and revising/ rewriting. P
lan to start this coming weekend. Don’t try to writ
e down the
final product in the first sitting. Achieving this
would be impossible even for the most experienced w
riters. Give
yourself time to reflect and to revise.
In the past, students have made good experience wit
h explicitly working through the following stages.
Collecting thoughts and ideas through one or more
unconstrained writing
bursts on main components
of the proposal. Doing so gets you writing without
judgment, evaluation or premeditation. You then hav
e words
on paper or file you can start working with.
Once you have something – anything – written, you c
an sort through your brainstorming, pick
interesting points, and get a preliminary general s
tructure in place. Doing so gives you a general out
line – a
version of the proposal. At this point you can als
o determine which gaps need to be filled, and which
points in your argument need to be strengthened; ag
ain use an unconstrained writing exercise to figure
what you may want to say on these points.
Now that you have a general outline and now which p
oints you want to make, you can work toward you
first complete version, your first
. Try to set aside evaluating your own writing once
more and just get all
points spelt out in a somewhat reasonable order.
With a draft in hand you have for the most part fig
ured out which points you want to make them and
how you want to support them. Next you need to figu
re out how to argue it well. To do so question the
structure, question the content of paragraphs, ques
tion your argument. Instead of “is this complete?”
Source: Toronto
Star, Tuesday
October 28
, 2014


Analysis of the Document Processes Industry And financial services Industry in Canada…

Analysis of the Document Processes Industry And financial services Industry in Canada…

Project description
Company: Xerox (1-2 pages)
Analysis of CANADIAN market and Xerox competitors such as Dell, HP and Lexmark

Provide a description of the document processes industry including the size of the CANADIAN market, growth rate, major competing companies (direct or indirect) and key prospects, as well as any other information you consider important. Competitors may be direct, that is manufacturing the same type of product, or indirect, that is, manufacturing a substitute product that fulfills the same need. At least THREE competitors must be identified and profiled.

Industry data may be shown in tables and exhibits (not part of the page maximum), but the significance of the information must be discussed in the body of the main report. Place a copy of all material used for reference in a separate numbered appendix, including web pages, articles from trade magazines, the popular press, and printouts of reports from databases. Depending on the product category and the industry,you may find PMB, Datamonitor and Hoovers useful for this section.

The Financial Services Industry (~1 page)

Briefly describe the financial services industry in Canada (size, competitors, segments, market leaders, etc.).