MKT 6A3 – Public Relations

MKT 6A3 – Public Relations
Campaign evaluation
Deadline: Friday 4th December by 2359h via Blackboard
Weighting: 50%
Format: Individual report

Assignment outline:

The aim of this assignment is to test the conceptual knowledge developed throughout the module. The assignment consists of two parts; a portfolio and a report. The portfolio needs to consist of an analysis of media coverage of the student’s chosen company. Analysing media coverage is the most traditional method to measure the results of public relations activities, as clippings can indicate the audience’s potential exposure to the message. This assignment tests students’ practical skills at evaluation, using their theoretical knowledge to offer credible comment on a hot industry topic.

This assignment is comprised of two parts (although submitted as one assignment):

A) Practical – Portfolio

You will complete a media analysis exercise based on 10 editorial clippings about one company of your own choice. These 10 clippings need to be from a selection of media e.g. press cuttings / websites / broadcast clips / social networks. Advertisements must not be used.

This media analysis, for each clipping i.e. 10 in total, should be presented in bullet points (as it will not contribute to your word count) and should include:

1. Placement: Where in the publication or broadcast it was found: on the front page of the paper or inside; as the lead story on the evening news or an item stuck between sports and weather etc. Also include prominence: e.g. did it have a photo for extra impact?
2. Audience reach: Circulation of the newspaper, size of the television or radio audience or amount of online page impressions
3. Context: News story, feature, investigative piece, editorial, column, a letter to the editor or social media response
4. Content: Inclusion of key messages. It is not enough to simply count the number of times a company, product or issue is mentioned. Look for key messages, such as product attributes (low price, reliability, environmentally safe, physically safe, easy to use, etc) or company attributes (environmental responsibility, good labour relations, good community citizen and so on). Messages can be contained in the news story or in quotes provided by customers, stock analysts or other observers/ stakeholders
5. Tone: Positive, negative or neutral
6. Stakeholders: Whose viewpoint is included in the article e.g. a key influencer through twitter or a blog / a corporate investor through a financial news story / a customer through a Facebook comment. At least three or four different viewpoints should be identified within the complete portfolio i.e. not for each individual clipping.

Choose a company that has been in the headlines post January 2014. You may find that you are able to have a more thorough analysis of a company that has experienced some form of negative press/crisis. This would enable you to recommend suggestions for improvement.

Do not rush with choosing the company. Pay attention to what is new, interesting and making headlines. Some sectors and within them certain companies always get more coverage than others (Starbucks, Apple, BA, Tiffany’s, Barclays, BP and so on). Alternatively, some companies offer so much scope in media terms that students have decided to follow one issue that a particular company is facing e.g. BP and the Gulf of Mexico crisis, Primark and ethical trading, Starbucks and UK tax evasion etc

Companies that have been used previously include Harrods, The Body Shop, Adidas, Monster, Burberry, Nike and Starbucks.
B) Report – Analysis of clippings

The aim of the report is to discuss the importance of evaluating campaigns and evaluate the success of the chosen campaign via the clippings in the portfolio. Using theory, students should showcase their understanding of key PR concepts including planning, communication models and evaluation within a 1,500 word report (+/- 5%). Credible comment should be provided on the importance of campaign evaluation. The report should be structured as follows:

Executive summary: Usually one or two paragraphs which summarises the report aims, literature review, overview of the results of the evaluation and conclusion (not included in word count)

Background: This introduces your reader to the company, its sector and where appropriate, a particular topic for analysis (two paragraphs maximum). Also included should be a brief overview of any key issues that are affecting the sector e.g. financial crisis in banking, tourism and the environment, etc. (not included in word count)

Literature review: An overview of key theories surrounding PR campaign models, media analysis and evaluation

Analysis of clippings: Analysing the prominence and success of the clippings. This section should particularly focus on if anything should be changed in the future to change negative messages into positives, or how to target audiences more effectively. Students should refer to specific clippings during their analysis (i.e. Clipping 1 shows that…)

Conclusion: Highlight the content of the report and what has been learnt from evaluating the campaign. Is there anything that could be done differently next time to ensure more positive/wide spread media coverage?

References: Using Harvard Referencing System

Appendices: Part A – Portfolio
Assignment 2 Feedback Form
Student Tutor:
Module Code: MKT 6A3 Module Title: Public Relations
Assignment: Campaign evaluation
cccc
Criteria and Weighting % Comments
Assignment Parameters (10%)
• Portfolio: Minimum of 10 clippings evidenced and presented appropriately to medium
• Report follows the formal report layout and is within 10% +/- of stated word count

Portfolio (20%)
• Evidence of a varied selection of media stories, mediums and clippings to support the selected topic
• Understanding of the characteristics of each selected clipping through an analysis of placement, impressions, audience reach, tone, length

Report (70%)
• 40%: Through academic reference clearly evidences understanding of key PR concepts connected with:
o planning and monitoring
o targeting and message setting
o corporate reputation including perceptive interpretation on messages found
o stakeholders and PR publics theory
• 20%: Provides detailed and critical commentary on the issue of evaluation making reference to current industry viewpoints
• 20%: Analysis of clippings
• 20%: Conclusion
GENERAL Comments:

First marker:

Second marker:

Percentage Mark: NB All marks are provisional until confirmed
Date:

case study

case study
Order Description
What is required of your case report write up.
? Introduction (background information, what testing was performed on what samples).
? Case presentation details – patient clinical history/family history and potentially impacting social factors.
? Discussion – Provide specific test results and what conclusions can be drawn from these results, there is likely to be more than one potential condition from the test results available. Indicate testing to be performed for differential diagnosis, tests to indicate prognosis where appropriate. If a firm diagnosis can be made what would be the usual course of treatment.
? Conclusion – Brief summary of the overall conclusions, future developments in the treatment of the condition where appropriate.
the supporting information file will be attached.

BLID CASE STUDY 2
Previously healthy five your old girl presented with a recent history of severe sickness, vomiting, and diarrhoea. The symptoms began with general abdominal pain followed by episodes ofdiarrhoea and vomiting without blood contamination. There were no reports of sick contacts, travel, camping, all unusual food consumption.

On the first day of symptoms, her GP diagnosed viral gastroenteritis and stool cultures were sent to a local hospital. The following day, her vomiting increased in frequency and the diarrhoea became streaked with blood and mucus. The patient was admitted to the local hospital where a complete blood count revealed a white cell count of 22,500/ml ( reference interval 5.5 – 15.5 x 1000/ml) with 89% neutrophils and 7% bands. A urinanalysis revealed positive ketones of 150mg/ml and a specific gravity of 1.030 (reference interval 1.005 – 1.030). She was transferred to a general hospital for management of neutrophilia and dehydration.

On admission, the temperature was 38.7°C, but other vital signs and physical exams were unremarkable. She was treated with intravenous fluids. Stool cultures for bacteria, shiga toxin, ova and parasites were obtained. Urinalysis showed positive protein of 300mg/dl and 4 red blood cells per high power field. On day two of admission, the patient passed cranberry coloured urine. Repeat laboratory tests were performed at this time for creatinine, blood urea, haematocrit and platelet count. She continued to demonstrate anaemia and thrombocytopenia throughout her hospital admission.

Laboratory Testing
Microbiology Testing
Preparation of a gram stain
Observation and comments on a number of pre-prepared plates
Obserbation of OF test
Preformance of oxidase test.

1. Prepare a Grams stain from the NA plate

Protocol
• Make a smear of bacteria on the slide (use the saline)
• Heat fix by passing the slide through the blue Bunsen flame
• Flood slide with crystal violet – 1min
• Flood slide with Lugols iodine – 1min
• Destain with acetone and wash with water
• Flood slide with fuschin – 30 second
• View using x100 oil immersion

2. Observe the MacConkeys and EMB agars – record the colour of the colonies and agar; interpret the results base on the Gram stain and your knowledge of these differential media

3. Observe the pre-prepared OF test and record what you can see
Remember – the media is green to begin with and changes colour to yellow if the organisms is respiring. One tube is overlayed with paraffin to make the conditions anaerobic, the other is aerobic.

4. Carry out an oxidase test

Protocol
• Break the glass vial inside the reagent tube by gently squeezing the tube
• Dispense on drop onto the filter paper disc (in the Petri dish)
• Select a colony and add it to the spot of reagent
• A purple colour is a positive result

5. Serotyping
You have a photograph of O and H serotyping
Six different serotypes have been assessed by latex agglutination
Determine the serotype from the agglutination
Results:

1- Gram stain: gram negative bacilli
2- Urineculture :MacConkey agar: lactose fermenting and round Pink mucoid colonies. – EMB :round small Greenish shiny florescent colonies. – Nutrient Agar : creamy colourless colonies
Stool culture: No growth
3- OF: colour change from green to yellow in both Aerobic and anaerobic (positive)
4- Oxidase test: Negative
5-
Haematology
Observe and report findings from the blood film
Examination of a Blood film

A blood film has been prepared from a peripheral blood sample. Examine the blood film initially under lower power magnification and then under high power magnification noting any abnormal findings.

In order to aid you in your examination of the blood film a normal blood film is also included and should be viewed initially in order for you to make appropriate observations of the patient’s blood film.

Examine the blood film with a scan of the slide using the low-power objective. This step is necessary to assess the overall quality of the blood film, including abnormal distribution of RBCs, suggesting the presence of rouleaux or autoagglutination and/or the presence of a disproportionate number of large nucleated cells, such as monocytes or neutrophils. In addition, the low power magnification examination allows for the rapid detection of large abnormal cells such as blasts, reactive lymphocytes, and parasites.

Using high power magnification and oil immersion find an area of the blood film inwhich the RBCs are evenly distributed and barely touching one another (two or three cellsmay overlap). Scan 8 to 10 fields in this area note the RBC, WBC and platelet morphology and estimate the numbers in relation to the normal blood film.

Evaluation of the RBC morphology is an important aspect of the smear evaluation andis used in conjunction with the RBC indices to describe cells as normal or abnormal in size,shape, and color.

Make a note of your observations.
Biochemistry and Haematology laboratory Results

Laboratory Test
Result
Blood Urea Nitrogen
9.3 mmol/L
Haemoglobin
82g/L
Haematocrit
30.7%
Platelet Count
28 x 109/L
White Blood Cell count 22 x 109/L
Haptoglobulins
Absent
Ketones
150mg/ml
Direct Antiglobulin Test Negative
Urine Analysis:
Haematuria
Proteinuria
4 RBCs per low power field
300mg/dL

Cell Type Cell size (µm) Nucleus Chromatin Cytoplasm Granules Adult Reference range
Peripheral Blood (%) Cell x 109/L
Segmented neutrophil (Seg) polymorphonuclear neutrophil (Poly PMN) 10 – 15 2 – 5 lobes connected by thin filaments without visible chromatin Coarsely clumped Pale ink, cream coloured or colourless 1o: Rare
2o: Abundant 50 – 70 2.3 – 8.1
Band Neutrophil 10 – 15 Constricted but chromatin must be visible within the thinnest part Coarsely clumped Pale blue to pink 1o: Few
2o: Abundant 0 -5 0.0 – 0.6
Lymphocyte 7 – 18 Round to oval; may be slightly indented occasional nucleoli Condensed to deeply condensed Scant to moderate; sky blue ± Few azurophilic 20 – 40 0.8 – 4.8
Monocyte 12 – 20 Variable; may be round, horseshoe or kidney shaped, often has folds producing brain like convolutions Moderately clumped; lacy Blue-gray may have pseudopods; vacuoles may be absent or numerous Many fine granules frequently giving the appearance of ground glass 3 – 11 0.5 – 1.4
Eosinophil 12 – 17 2- 3 lobes connected by thin filaments without visible chromatin Coarsely clumped Cream to pink; may have irregular borders 1o: Rare
2o: Abundant red to orange, round 0 – 5 0.0 – 0.4
Basophil 10 – 14 Usually two lobes connected by thin filaments without visible chromatin Coarsely clumped Lavender to colourless 1o: Rare
2o: Lavender to dark purple, variable in number with uneven distribution; may obscure nucleus or was out during staining. 0 – 1 0.0 – 0.1

Results:

Abnormal RBC morphology and number
• Schistocytes – fragmented part of a red cell
• Spherocytes – lack central pallor and may appear smaller
• Reticulocytes – Immature red cells, larger, contain RNA
• Echinocytes – RBCs covered in spicules
Reduction or absence of platelets
May or may not present with leukocytosis
Determine Prothrombin Time

Vinyl gloves and goggles to be worn for all parts of practical.
METHOD TO DETERMINE PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT)

Materials:
1. 12 x 75 test tubes
2. Oxford pipettes 200 and 100 µl
3. Pipette tips
4. Water bath 37?C
5. Test tube rack
6. Stop watch
7. Calcium chloride/tissue thromboplastin (PT reagent)
8. Controls, Level I and III (normal and abnormal)
9. Patient plasma specimens
Principle:

The PT measures functional activity of the extrinsic and common pathways. The PT evaluates patients suspected of having an inherited or acquired deficiency in these pathways. The procedure uses a tissue thromboplastin reagent with calcium chloride (CaCl) to provide a one step procedure for evaluating plasma clotting.
This test was devised on the assumption that when an optimal amount of calcium and an excess of thromboplastin are added to decalcified plasma, the rate of coagulation depends on the concentration of prothrombin in the plasma. The prothrombin time is therefore the time required for the plasma to clot after an excess of thromboplastin and an optimal concentration of calcium have been added.

The normal values for the prothrombin time range from 10.0 to 13.0 seconds. An elevated prothrombin time may indicate the presence of vitamin K deficiency, DIC, liver disease, presence of FSP’s or a deficiency in one or clotting factors. In addition, inhibitors can cause prolonged PT’s.

Procedure:
1. Mix well prior to pipetting thromboplastin reagent at any step in this procedure.
2. Using a volumetric pipette, add 1mls of the tissue thromboplastin-calcium chloride reagent (PT reagent) into a 12 x 75 mm test tube and place in a 37oC waterbath for 10 minutes to equilibriate to 37oC temperature.
3. Pipette 100 µLof normal control into 2 test tubes.
4. Allow at least one 1 minute for the normal control to reach 37oC.
5. Pipette 200µLof PT reagent into one of the tubes containing the control. Start the stop watch simultaneously.
6. Mix the tube and leave in the heat block for a minimum of 7-8 seconds. Then remove, wipe the exterior, tilt back and forth gently until a visible clot is formed. As the clot forms, the mixture will gelatinize and may turn cloudy.
7. Stop the stop watch immediately when the clot begins to form and record the time in seconds. Record you results to 1 decimal place.
8. Repeat the procedure for the second run of normal control. Record the time.
9. The results from run 1 and run 2 should be within ±1 second from each other, average the two results and report with appropriate units. For manual PT, results should match within 1.0 second (if result is less than 20 seconds). Results over 20 seconds should match within 2.0 seconds.
10. Repeat steps 3-10 for the abnormal control, including the same criteria for accepting the results.
11. Repeat steps 3 – 10 for the patient plasma sample.
Results:
PT = 13 seconds – Normal

Biochemistry
Determine plasma creatinine level.

METHOD FOR CREATININE CLEARANCE

1 Prepare a suitable series of working standards (6) and the stock standard of 1.0mmol/l suggested range 0-1000µmol/l suggested values 0, 50, 100, 400, 800, 1000µmol/l (Note units). Prepare 1ml of each standard and you will use the whole 1ml in the method
2
1.0mmol/l creatinine std (ml) Water (ml) Creatinine conc. µmol/l
0 1.0
0.05 0.95
0.1 0.9
0.4 0.6
0.8 0.2
1.0 0.0

3 Label up a test tube for the patient plasma sample (P1). You will now have a total of 7 tubes.

4 Add 1ml of plasma to the labelled patient tube.

5 Add 3.5ml of distilled water to all 7 tubes.

6 Mix well and add 0.5ml or 500µl of sodium tungstate reagent to all tubes. Mix well and add 1ml of sulphuric acid to all tubes

7 You will find that the patient’s sample has precipitated out the proteins. Centrifuge this tube at 3000rpm for 5 minutes.Carefully return to rack

8 Label up a second series of 10 tubes as before,0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, P1

9 Transfer 3ml from of each of the standard tubes into the fresh tubes and also 3ml of supernatant from the patient’s plasma sample to fresh tubes.

10 Add 1ml of picric acid to all tubes and mix well.

11 Add 1 ml sodium hydroxide to all the tubes and mix well.

12 Stand tubes at room temperature for 15minutes for the colour to develop and read the absorbance at 500nm.

13 Plot a standard curve and extrapolate the patient result.
Result:
• Plasma creatinine : 97.2µmol/l

Determine plasma bilirubin level

METHOD FOR PLASMA BILIRUBIN

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PLASMA BILIRUBIN

PRINCIPLES
Treatment of bilirubin with a diazotised sulphanilic acid reagent results in the production of an azobilirubin with an absorption peak at 600nm.
Free (unconjugated) bilirubin reacts only slowly in aqueous solution and the reaction carried out in such conditions provides a measure of the immediately reacting conjugating bilirubin only.
Inclusion of a solubilising agent such as caffeine-sodium benzoate permits free bilirubin to react with similar rapidity and the reaction carried out under these conditions therefore gives a measure of the total bilirubin present in the sample.
The reaction is allowed to proceed for 10minutes at room temperature after which it is stopped by the addition of ascorbic acid. Alkaline tartrate reagent is then added to convert the red azobilirubin to a blue-green form which improves the sensitivity of the assay.
Please note that for this practical only we will be adding patient/standard samples to our blank tubes. This is unusual. We are doing it so that we can “blank out” the yellow colour of the sample due to the bilirubin. We only want to measure the colour developed when bilirubin reacts with the dye and not the yellow “icterus”

REAGENTS
Note you will need to make up some of these reagents marked with # immediately before use. The sodium nitrite will be prepared for you.

Caffeine/Benzoate 75g Sodium benzoate dissolved in 800ml of water at 60°C, 50g hydrated sodium acetate, 1g EDTA made up to 1 litre.

Alkaline tartrate 100g Sodium Hydroxide and 250g Sodium Potassium Tartrate dissolved in water made up to 1 litre.

Ascorbic acid # 200mg in 5ml water

Sulphanilic acid 5g sulphanilic acid in 15ml concentrated hydrochloric acid
made up to 1 litre.

Sodium nitrite Prepare immediately before use – 500mg in 100ml water.

Diazo reagent # Prepare immediately before use – 10ml sulphanilic acid and 0.25ml Sodium Nitrite solution.

METHOD

Set up a blank tube and 2 sample tubes for the patient sample P1, P2 (perform patient test in duplicate) and also for the bilirubin standard (6 tubes in total) and treat as shown below:

REAGENT TUBES BLANK
TEST (std, P1,P2)µl (stdBl, P1Bl, P2Bl)µl

Water 400 400
Serum 100 100
Ascorbic acid – 50
Diazo reagent 250 250
Caffeine/Benzoate 1000 –

STAND THE TUBES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE FOR 10 MINUTES THE ADD:-
Ascorbic acid 50 –
Caffeine/Benzoate – 1000
Alkaline tartrate 750 750

Read the absorption of each at 600nm. Tabulate your results

N.B. there has to be a blank tube for each test because the yellow colour (icterus) of the samples interferes with the developed substrate colour. We add sample to the blank tubes to get the yellow colour and then we stop the reaction occurring in the blank tubes. If this colour was not blanked out when we zero on the blank tube then this colour would give a false result.

Finally to calculate the Total Bilirubin results use the following equation

Patient result = Absorbance patient x standard value µmol/l
Absorbance standard

Health and Safety Information / Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Reagent Hazard CLP Label Control Measure
Ascorbic acid 200mg Not Classed as hazardous
0.5% sulphanilic acid warning
H315 Causes skin irritation.
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction.
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Whilst this is a dilute solution it may still cause eye irritation so it best to avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing

Vinyl gloves and goggles
0.5% Sodium Nitrite
Danger
H272 – May intensify fire; oxidizer
H301 – Toxic if swallowed
H319 – Causes serious eye irritation
H400 – Very toxic to aquatic life Whilst this is a dilute solution it may still cause eye irritation so it best to avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing

Vinyl gloves and goggles
Caffeine/benzoate solution
Caffeine50g/l Warning
H302 Harmful if swallowed. Vinyl gloves and goggles
Sodium Benzoate
75g/l Warning
H319 – Causes serious eye irritation Whilst this is a dilute solution it may still cause eye irritation so it best to avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing

Vinyl gloves and goggles
Ethylene Diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)
1g/l Warning
H319 – Causes serious eye irritation
H332 – Harmful if inhaled Vinyl gloves and goggles
Sodium Acetate 125g/l Not classed as hazardous
Alkaline tartrate solution contains
Sodium hydroxide
100g/l Danger H290 – May be corrosive to metals
H314 – Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
Sodium Potassium tartrate
250g/l Not classed as hazardous

Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met
Bilirubin Standard
Autonorm Not classed as hazardous
Patient sample 1
350 µmol/l (autonorm) Not classed as hazardous
Patient sample 1
35µmol/l (autonorm) Not classed as hazardous

Result:
• Total bilirubin : 50µmol/L

case study

case study
Order Description
What is required of your case report write up.
? Introduction (background information, what testing was performed on what samples).
? Case presentation details – patient clinical history/family history and potentially impacting social factors.
? Discussion – Provide specific test results and what conclusions can be drawn from these results, there is likely to be more than one potential condition from the test results available. Indicate testing to be performed for differential diagnosis, tests to indicate prognosis where appropriate. If a firm diagnosis can be made what would be the usual course of treatment.
? Conclusion – Brief summary of the overall conclusions, future developments in the treatment of the condition where appropriate.
the supporting information file will be attached.

BLID CASE STUDY 2
Previously healthy five your old girl presented with a recent history of severe sickness, vomiting, and diarrhoea. The symptoms began with general abdominal pain followed by episodes ofdiarrhoea and vomiting without blood contamination. There were no reports of sick contacts, travel, camping, all unusual food consumption.

On the first day of symptoms, her GP diagnosed viral gastroenteritis and stool cultures were sent to a local hospital. The following day, her vomiting increased in frequency and the diarrhoea became streaked with blood and mucus. The patient was admitted to the local hospital where a complete blood count revealed a white cell count of 22,500/ml ( reference interval 5.5 – 15.5 x 1000/ml) with 89% neutrophils and 7% bands. A urinanalysis revealed positive ketones of 150mg/ml and a specific gravity of 1.030 (reference interval 1.005 – 1.030). She was transferred to a general hospital for management of neutrophilia and dehydration.

On admission, the temperature was 38.7°C, but other vital signs and physical exams were unremarkable. She was treated with intravenous fluids. Stool cultures for bacteria, shiga toxin, ova and parasites were obtained. Urinalysis showed positive protein of 300mg/dl and 4 red blood cells per high power field. On day two of admission, the patient passed cranberry coloured urine. Repeat laboratory tests were performed at this time for creatinine, blood urea, haematocrit and platelet count. She continued to demonstrate anaemia and thrombocytopenia throughout her hospital admission.

Laboratory Testing
Microbiology Testing
Preparation of a gram stain
Observation and comments on a number of pre-prepared plates
Obserbation of OF test
Preformance of oxidase test.

1. Prepare a Grams stain from the NA plate

Protocol
• Make a smear of bacteria on the slide (use the saline)
• Heat fix by passing the slide through the blue Bunsen flame
• Flood slide with crystal violet – 1min
• Flood slide with Lugols iodine – 1min
• Destain with acetone and wash with water
• Flood slide with fuschin – 30 second
• View using x100 oil immersion

2. Observe the MacConkeys and EMB agars – record the colour of the colonies and agar; interpret the results base on the Gram stain and your knowledge of these differential media

3. Observe the pre-prepared OF test and record what you can see
Remember – the media is green to begin with and changes colour to yellow if the organisms is respiring. One tube is overlayed with paraffin to make the conditions anaerobic, the other is aerobic.

4. Carry out an oxidase test

Protocol
• Break the glass vial inside the reagent tube by gently squeezing the tube
• Dispense on drop onto the filter paper disc (in the Petri dish)
• Select a colony and add it to the spot of reagent
• A purple colour is a positive result

5. Serotyping
You have a photograph of O and H serotyping
Six different serotypes have been assessed by latex agglutination
Determine the serotype from the agglutination
Results:

1- Gram stain: gram negative bacilli
2- Urineculture :MacConkey agar: lactose fermenting and round Pink mucoid colonies. – EMB :round small Greenish shiny florescent colonies. – Nutrient Agar : creamy colourless colonies
Stool culture: No growth
3- OF: colour change from green to yellow in both Aerobic and anaerobic (positive)
4- Oxidase test: Negative
5-
Haematology
Observe and report findings from the blood film
Examination of a Blood film

A blood film has been prepared from a peripheral blood sample. Examine the blood film initially under lower power magnification and then under high power magnification noting any abnormal findings.

In order to aid you in your examination of the blood film a normal blood film is also included and should be viewed initially in order for you to make appropriate observations of the patient’s blood film.

Examine the blood film with a scan of the slide using the low-power objective. This step is necessary to assess the overall quality of the blood film, including abnormal distribution of RBCs, suggesting the presence of rouleaux or autoagglutination and/or the presence of a disproportionate number of large nucleated cells, such as monocytes or neutrophils. In addition, the low power magnification examination allows for the rapid detection of large abnormal cells such as blasts, reactive lymphocytes, and parasites.

Using high power magnification and oil immersion find an area of the blood film inwhich the RBCs are evenly distributed and barely touching one another (two or three cellsmay overlap). Scan 8 to 10 fields in this area note the RBC, WBC and platelet morphology and estimate the numbers in relation to the normal blood film.

Evaluation of the RBC morphology is an important aspect of the smear evaluation andis used in conjunction with the RBC indices to describe cells as normal or abnormal in size,shape, and color.

Make a note of your observations.
Biochemistry and Haematology laboratory Results

Laboratory Test
Result
Blood Urea Nitrogen
9.3 mmol/L
Haemoglobin
82g/L
Haematocrit
30.7%
Platelet Count
28 x 109/L
White Blood Cell count 22 x 109/L
Haptoglobulins
Absent
Ketones
150mg/ml
Direct Antiglobulin Test Negative
Urine Analysis:
Haematuria
Proteinuria
4 RBCs per low power field
300mg/dL

Cell Type Cell size (µm) Nucleus Chromatin Cytoplasm Granules Adult Reference range
Peripheral Blood (%) Cell x 109/L
Segmented neutrophil (Seg) polymorphonuclear neutrophil (Poly PMN) 10 – 15 2 – 5 lobes connected by thin filaments without visible chromatin Coarsely clumped Pale ink, cream coloured or colourless 1o: Rare
2o: Abundant 50 – 70 2.3 – 8.1
Band Neutrophil 10 – 15 Constricted but chromatin must be visible within the thinnest part Coarsely clumped Pale blue to pink 1o: Few
2o: Abundant 0 -5 0.0 – 0.6
Lymphocyte 7 – 18 Round to oval; may be slightly indented occasional nucleoli Condensed to deeply condensed Scant to moderate; sky blue ± Few azurophilic 20 – 40 0.8 – 4.8
Monocyte 12 – 20 Variable; may be round, horseshoe or kidney shaped, often has folds producing brain like convolutions Moderately clumped; lacy Blue-gray may have pseudopods; vacuoles may be absent or numerous Many fine granules frequently giving the appearance of ground glass 3 – 11 0.5 – 1.4
Eosinophil 12 – 17 2- 3 lobes connected by thin filaments without visible chromatin Coarsely clumped Cream to pink; may have irregular borders 1o: Rare
2o: Abundant red to orange, round 0 – 5 0.0 – 0.4
Basophil 10 – 14 Usually two lobes connected by thin filaments without visible chromatin Coarsely clumped Lavender to colourless 1o: Rare
2o: Lavender to dark purple, variable in number with uneven distribution; may obscure nucleus or was out during staining. 0 – 1 0.0 – 0.1

Results:

Abnormal RBC morphology and number
• Schistocytes – fragmented part of a red cell
• Spherocytes – lack central pallor and may appear smaller
• Reticulocytes – Immature red cells, larger, contain RNA
• Echinocytes – RBCs covered in spicules
Reduction or absence of platelets
May or may not present with leukocytosis
Determine Prothrombin Time

Vinyl gloves and goggles to be worn for all parts of practical.
METHOD TO DETERMINE PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT)

Materials:
1. 12 x 75 test tubes
2. Oxford pipettes 200 and 100 µl
3. Pipette tips
4. Water bath 37?C
5. Test tube rack
6. Stop watch
7. Calcium chloride/tissue thromboplastin (PT reagent)
8. Controls, Level I and III (normal and abnormal)
9. Patient plasma specimens
Principle:

The PT measures functional activity of the extrinsic and common pathways. The PT evaluates patients suspected of having an inherited or acquired deficiency in these pathways. The procedure uses a tissue thromboplastin reagent with calcium chloride (CaCl) to provide a one step procedure for evaluating plasma clotting.
This test was devised on the assumption that when an optimal amount of calcium and an excess of thromboplastin are added to decalcified plasma, the rate of coagulation depends on the concentration of prothrombin in the plasma. The prothrombin time is therefore the time required for the plasma to clot after an excess of thromboplastin and an optimal concentration of calcium have been added.

The normal values for the prothrombin time range from 10.0 to 13.0 seconds. An elevated prothrombin time may indicate the presence of vitamin K deficiency, DIC, liver disease, presence of FSP’s or a deficiency in one or clotting factors. In addition, inhibitors can cause prolonged PT’s.

Procedure:
1. Mix well prior to pipetting thromboplastin reagent at any step in this procedure.
2. Using a volumetric pipette, add 1mls of the tissue thromboplastin-calcium chloride reagent (PT reagent) into a 12 x 75 mm test tube and place in a 37oC waterbath for 10 minutes to equilibriate to 37oC temperature.
3. Pipette 100 µLof normal control into 2 test tubes.
4. Allow at least one 1 minute for the normal control to reach 37oC.
5. Pipette 200µLof PT reagent into one of the tubes containing the control. Start the stop watch simultaneously.
6. Mix the tube and leave in the heat block for a minimum of 7-8 seconds. Then remove, wipe the exterior, tilt back and forth gently until a visible clot is formed. As the clot forms, the mixture will gelatinize and may turn cloudy.
7. Stop the stop watch immediately when the clot begins to form and record the time in seconds. Record you results to 1 decimal place.
8. Repeat the procedure for the second run of normal control. Record the time.
9. The results from run 1 and run 2 should be within ±1 second from each other, average the two results and report with appropriate units. For manual PT, results should match within 1.0 second (if result is less than 20 seconds). Results over 20 seconds should match within 2.0 seconds.
10. Repeat steps 3-10 for the abnormal control, including the same criteria for accepting the results.
11. Repeat steps 3 – 10 for the patient plasma sample.
Results:
PT = 13 seconds – Normal

Biochemistry
Determine plasma creatinine level.

METHOD FOR CREATININE CLEARANCE

1 Prepare a suitable series of working standards (6) and the stock standard of 1.0mmol/l suggested range 0-1000µmol/l suggested values 0, 50, 100, 400, 800, 1000µmol/l (Note units). Prepare 1ml of each standard and you will use the whole 1ml in the method
2
1.0mmol/l creatinine std (ml) Water (ml) Creatinine conc. µmol/l
0 1.0
0.05 0.95
0.1 0.9
0.4 0.6
0.8 0.2
1.0 0.0

3 Label up a test tube for the patient plasma sample (P1). You will now have a total of 7 tubes.

4 Add 1ml of plasma to the labelled patient tube.

5 Add 3.5ml of distilled water to all 7 tubes.

6 Mix well and add 0.5ml or 500µl of sodium tungstate reagent to all tubes. Mix well and add 1ml of sulphuric acid to all tubes

7 You will find that the patient’s sample has precipitated out the proteins. Centrifuge this tube at 3000rpm for 5 minutes.Carefully return to rack

8 Label up a second series of 10 tubes as before,0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, P1

9 Transfer 3ml from of each of the standard tubes into the fresh tubes and also 3ml of supernatant from the patient’s plasma sample to fresh tubes.

10 Add 1ml of picric acid to all tubes and mix well.

11 Add 1 ml sodium hydroxide to all the tubes and mix well.

12 Stand tubes at room temperature for 15minutes for the colour to develop and read the absorbance at 500nm.

13 Plot a standard curve and extrapolate the patient result.
Result:
• Plasma creatinine : 97.2µmol/l

Determine plasma bilirubin level

METHOD FOR PLASMA BILIRUBIN

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PLASMA BILIRUBIN

PRINCIPLES
Treatment of bilirubin with a diazotised sulphanilic acid reagent results in the production of an azobilirubin with an absorption peak at 600nm.
Free (unconjugated) bilirubin reacts only slowly in aqueous solution and the reaction carried out in such conditions provides a measure of the immediately reacting conjugating bilirubin only.
Inclusion of a solubilising agent such as caffeine-sodium benzoate permits free bilirubin to react with similar rapidity and the reaction carried out under these conditions therefore gives a measure of the total bilirubin present in the sample.
The reaction is allowed to proceed for 10minutes at room temperature after which it is stopped by the addition of ascorbic acid. Alkaline tartrate reagent is then added to convert the red azobilirubin to a blue-green form which improves the sensitivity of the assay.
Please note that for this practical only we will be adding patient/standard samples to our blank tubes. This is unusual. We are doing it so that we can “blank out” the yellow colour of the sample due to the bilirubin. We only want to measure the colour developed when bilirubin reacts with the dye and not the yellow “icterus”

REAGENTS
Note you will need to make up some of these reagents marked with # immediately before use. The sodium nitrite will be prepared for you.

Caffeine/Benzoate 75g Sodium benzoate dissolved in 800ml of water at 60°C, 50g hydrated sodium acetate, 1g EDTA made up to 1 litre.

Alkaline tartrate 100g Sodium Hydroxide and 250g Sodium Potassium Tartrate dissolved in water made up to 1 litre.

Ascorbic acid # 200mg in 5ml water

Sulphanilic acid 5g sulphanilic acid in 15ml concentrated hydrochloric acid
made up to 1 litre.

Sodium nitrite Prepare immediately before use – 500mg in 100ml water.

Diazo reagent # Prepare immediately before use – 10ml sulphanilic acid and 0.25ml Sodium Nitrite solution.

METHOD

Set up a blank tube and 2 sample tubes for the patient sample P1, P2 (perform patient test in duplicate) and also for the bilirubin standard (6 tubes in total) and treat as shown below:

REAGENT TUBES BLANK
TEST (std, P1,P2)µl (stdBl, P1Bl, P2Bl)µl

Water 400 400
Serum 100 100
Ascorbic acid – 50
Diazo reagent 250 250
Caffeine/Benzoate 1000 –

STAND THE TUBES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE FOR 10 MINUTES THE ADD:-
Ascorbic acid 50 –
Caffeine/Benzoate – 1000
Alkaline tartrate 750 750

Read the absorption of each at 600nm. Tabulate your results

N.B. there has to be a blank tube for each test because the yellow colour (icterus) of the samples interferes with the developed substrate colour. We add sample to the blank tubes to get the yellow colour and then we stop the reaction occurring in the blank tubes. If this colour was not blanked out when we zero on the blank tube then this colour would give a false result.

Finally to calculate the Total Bilirubin results use the following equation

Patient result = Absorbance patient x standard value µmol/l
Absorbance standard

Health and Safety Information / Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Reagent Hazard CLP Label Control Measure
Ascorbic acid 200mg Not Classed as hazardous
0.5% sulphanilic acid warning
H315 Causes skin irritation.
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction.
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Whilst this is a dilute solution it may still cause eye irritation so it best to avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing

Vinyl gloves and goggles
0.5% Sodium Nitrite
Danger
H272 – May intensify fire; oxidizer
H301 – Toxic if swallowed
H319 – Causes serious eye irritation
H400 – Very toxic to aquatic life Whilst this is a dilute solution it may still cause eye irritation so it best to avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing

Vinyl gloves and goggles
Caffeine/benzoate solution
Caffeine50g/l Warning
H302 Harmful if swallowed. Vinyl gloves and goggles
Sodium Benzoate
75g/l Warning
H319 – Causes serious eye irritation Whilst this is a dilute solution it may still cause eye irritation so it best to avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing

Vinyl gloves and goggles
Ethylene Diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)
1g/l Warning
H319 – Causes serious eye irritation
H332 – Harmful if inhaled Vinyl gloves and goggles
Sodium Acetate 125g/l Not classed as hazardous
Alkaline tartrate solution contains
Sodium hydroxide
100g/l Danger H290 – May be corrosive to metals
H314 – Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
Sodium Potassium tartrate
250g/l Not classed as hazardous

Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met
Bilirubin Standard
Autonorm Not classed as hazardous
Patient sample 1
350 µmol/l (autonorm) Not classed as hazardous
Patient sample 1
35µmol/l (autonorm) Not classed as hazardous

Result:
• Total bilirubin : 50µmol/L

Module Title: Logistics and Operations Management

Module Title: Logistics and Operations Management

Order Description
Semester: Module Title: Logistics and Operations Management
Programme
BSc (Hons) Business Management
BSc (Hons) Management with Human Resource Management
BSc (Hons) Business Management & Information Technology
BSc (Hons) Human Resource Management with Information Systems
BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Information Systems
BSc (Hons) Oil & Gas Management
Level:Format:
Report Presentation:
No
Any special requirements:
? All work should be submitted on the Student Portal.
? Work to be submitted in a professional manner, and as directed by the Module Leader.
Word Limit: 2,000 words (with 10% plus or minus leeway)
Deadline date for submission: Friday, 30 NOVEMBER 2015
Learning outcomes to be examined in this assessment (please note that this is NOT the assessment task)
? Critically evaluate methods of planning and organising efficient operations and networking.
? Analyse the problems of controlling component activities and of controlling quality
? Critically discuss methods of project evaluation and of scheduling resources
Percentage of marks awarded for module:
This assignment is worth 50% of the total marks for the module
Assessment criteria
Explanatory comments on the assessment criteria
Maximum marks for each section
Knowledge and Research (content, relevance, and originality)
Clear demonstration of rigorous research from recognised authoritative sources. Audience focus. Meeting the deliverables.
55% Writing and Presentation (format,
Rigorous use of the Harvard Methodology for citation and referencing; page numbering; 10 % Page 2 of 4
references or bibliography, and style)
correct display of direct quotations.
Argument and Analysis (Critical analysis, evaluation, and application)
Constructive critical analysis, introduction, conclusion. Demonstration of a clear understanding of the issues. Use of academic models. Full articulation of ideas developed. Offering well-argued solutions and/or alternatives if and where appropriate.
35%
Assignment Task
As the Operations Manager of an organisation (select from the list below), you are tasked with analysing the company’s operations methods by providing a report to the Board of Directors which includes the following:
? Key elements of the company’s operations that requires improvement.
? Detailed analysis of reasons why improving the organisation’s operations is important.
? The broad approaches to managing improvement, and recommend one technique to the board, including explanation of the appropriateness of the recommended technique as well as the risks involved in implementing this.
You are required to select ONE of the companies below as the basis for your analysis:
? Google
? Halliburton
? Tesco
? Starbucks
? NHS
Total marks for assignment: 100

Module Title: Logistics and Operations Management

Module Title: Logistics and Operations Management

Order Description
Semester: Module Title: Logistics and Operations Management
Programme
BSc (Hons) Business Management
BSc (Hons) Management with Human Resource Management
BSc (Hons) Business Management & Information Technology
BSc (Hons) Human Resource Management with Information Systems
BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Information Systems
BSc (Hons) Oil & Gas Management
Level:Format:
Report Presentation:
No
Any special requirements:
? All work should be submitted on the Student Portal.
? Work to be submitted in a professional manner, and as directed by the Module Leader.
Word Limit: 2,000 words (with 10% plus or minus leeway)
Deadline date for submission: Friday, 30 NOVEMBER 2015
Learning outcomes to be examined in this assessment (please note that this is NOT the assessment task)
? Critically evaluate methods of planning and organising efficient operations and networking.
? Analyse the problems of controlling component activities and of controlling quality
? Critically discuss methods of project evaluation and of scheduling resources
Percentage of marks awarded for module:
This assignment is worth 50% of the total marks for the module
Assessment criteria
Explanatory comments on the assessment criteria
Maximum marks for each section
Knowledge and Research (content, relevance, and originality)
Clear demonstration of rigorous research from recognised authoritative sources. Audience focus. Meeting the deliverables.
55% Writing and Presentation (format,
Rigorous use of the Harvard Methodology for citation and referencing; page numbering; 10 % Page 2 of 4
references or bibliography, and style)
correct display of direct quotations.
Argument and Analysis (Critical analysis, evaluation, and application)
Constructive critical analysis, introduction, conclusion. Demonstration of a clear understanding of the issues. Use of academic models. Full articulation of ideas developed. Offering well-argued solutions and/or alternatives if and where appropriate.
35%
Assignment Task
As the Operations Manager of an organisation (select from the list below), you are tasked with analysing the company’s operations methods by providing a report to the Board of Directors which includes the following:
? Key elements of the company’s operations that requires improvement.
? Detailed analysis of reasons why improving the organisation’s operations is important.
? The broad approaches to managing improvement, and recommend one technique to the board, including explanation of the appropriateness of the recommended technique as well as the risks involved in implementing this.
You are required to select ONE of the companies below as the basis for your analysis:
? Google
? Halliburton
? Tesco
? Starbucks
? NHS
Total marks for assignment: 100