Assignment Clinical Field Experience A: Visit a Local Public Library

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Assignment Clinical Field Experience A: Visit a Local Public Library

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Due Date: Mar 30, 2016 23:59:59 Max Points: 30

Details:
Hours: 2
Review “A Quick Guide to Selecting Great Informational Books for Young Children” and “Assessing Children’s Literature.”
Review the children’s section at a local public library. Consider and reflect upon the following questions:
1. What is included in the collection?
2. How does the collection support cultural and linguistic diversity, language development, and reading acquisition in young adolescents? Observe and reflect upon the range of books available, genres.
3. How does the space within the library encourage children’s engagement with high quality literature, high quality informational texts, and electronic sources?
In 250-500-words, reflect on your observations. In addition, note any special literacy staffing and/or literacy events. As the Benchmark Assessment focuses on lesson planning with informational text, it will be especially important to focus on understanding distinctions between high-quality literature and high-quality informational texts.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are not required to submit your reflection to Turnitin.
Document the hours and locations that you spend in the field on your Clinical Field Experience Verification Form.
Do not submit the log to Taskstream until all required documents are ready for submission.
Standards aligned to the clinical field experience:

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Produce two graphs that are clearly labeled.

  1. Produce two graphs that are clearly labeled.
  2. In the first graph, describe and show a scenario that might lead to a negative demand shock for coffee. Be clear in describing why the shock has an effect on the market and what the predicted effects on quantities and prices are.
  3. In the second graph, describe and show a scenario that might lead to a negative supply shock for coffee. Be clear in describing why the shock has an effect on the market and what the predicted effects on quantities and prices are.

(Elasticity and Sellers Revenue)  Graph and Label

    1. Suppose the market for Daraprim, a drug used by people with weakened immune systems to fight toxoplasmosis, has a fairly inelastic supply curve. Do you think the demand for Daraprim is elastic or inelastic and why?
    2. Draw a clearly-labeled supply and demand graph for Daraprim, minding the likely elasticities of supply and demand. Label the initial equilibrium.
    3. Suppose on large supplier cuts production of Daraprim. Show the likely effects of this decision on the graph and label the new equilibrium.
    4. What are the effects on quantities, price, and Seller total revenues? What are the effects on public health?
    5. Draw a second graph at the initial equilibrium, as in question 4. Now, suppose Congress passes looser regulations for new entrants for produce Daraprim. Show the shock and new equilibrium
    6. What are the effects on quantities, price, and Seller total revenues? What are the effects on public health?

 

 

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Assignment 1: Research Proposal with Annotated Bibliography

Assignment 1: Research Proposal with Annotated Bibliography

Compose a long proposal persuading me that you have a strong topic and plan for your research for the semester, and that this topic and plan is worth pursuing. This proposal should not be used to argue your solution; rather, you are proposing to me a problem, issue, or topic. See Allyn & Bacon, chapter 10 for the components of a long proposal (cover page, abstract that contextualizes the issue, purpose statement, statement of qualification, and description of research methods). Instead of a review of the literature section, however, you will end your project with an annotated bibliography that includes summary, evaluation/rhetorical analysis, and thesis/antithesis/synthesis for 3 sources (Sources should include at least 2 accessed through FIU library database. You might wish to choose one popular source or “flawed” source so you can showcase your critical thinking skills. Minimum word count for each annotation = 300). Total page count for project: 4-6 pages, single spaced. The topics that are allowed are:

ENVIRONMENT ISSUES (example: How can the Bahamas continue to promote tourism effectively while trying to stay “green”?)

POLITICAL CORRECTNESS / MULTI-CULTURAL ISSUES (example: Should something be done about the slang term “gay,” meaning “lame”?)

PERSONAL RELATIONS ISSUES IN TODAY’S WORLD (example: Is the prevalence of social media causing society to become ruder?)

PROBLEMS FACED BY COLLEGE STUDENTS (example: Is a college degree still valuable in today’s economy?)

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ISSUES (example: Should policies and attitudes regarding genetically modified food be re-examined?)

Below is a sample for you to guide while doing the essay and has a grading rubric for you to see.

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The theory of market economies emphasizes freedom of choice and limited government intervention.

The theory of market economies emphasizes freedom of choice and limited government intervention. The classic argument for government intervention is market failure – the inability of the market economy to correct itself from a dysfunctional state (such as the Great Depression).

Examine one case of significant government intervention as it relates to your current industry of employment or an industry in which you are interested in working.  Examples of intervention programs include, but are not limited to:

  • US agriculture support programs
  • Low income support programs (Food Stamps, Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit, and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families)
  • Medicaid, Children’s Health Insurance Program, Obamacare
  • Low income rent controls and housing vouchers
  • Government promoting renewable energy sources, discouraging fossil fuel sources

Develop a 16-slide presentation including detailed speaker notes or voiceover including the following:

  • Describe the intervention and detail its history.
  • Analyze the arguments for government intervention as opposed to arguments for market-based solutions.
  • Examine who may be helped and who may be hurt by the selected government intervention.
  • Examine externalities and/or unintended consequences of such intervention.
  • Determine the cost trend of the intervention program since its implementation.
  • Evaluate the success or failure of the intervention in achieving its objectives and develop conclusions.
  • Defend the use of or discontinuation of the selected intervention.

Note: The use of tables and/or charts to display economic data over the time period discussed is highly encouraged.

Cite a minimum of three scholarly references.

Format the assignment consistent with APA guidelines.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Need this by 7/3/2016 Make sure to put the information in a powerpoint with speakernotes

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1 Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet

1 Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet

Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet

CK-12 Foundation Chemistry

Name______________________ Date_________

Le Chatelier’s Principle is useful in predicting how a system at equilibrium will respond when

certain changes are imposed. Le Chatelier’s Principle does NOT explain why the system

changes, and is not an acceptable explanation for the change. It merely allows you to determine

quickly how the system will change when a disturbance is imposed. The explanation for why the

system changes can be found in your textbook.

There are three common ways a stress may be applied to a chemical system at equilibrium:

 changing the concentration (or partial pressure) of a reactant or product.

 changing the temperature.

 changing the volume of the container (which changes partial pressure of all gases in the

You should be aware that adding a gaseous substance that is not involved in the reaction

changes the total pressure in the system but does not change the partial pressure of any of the

reactants or products and therefore does not affect the equilibrium.

Le Chatelier’s Principle states when a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the equilibrium shifts

so as to partially undo (counteract) the effect of the disturbance.

Changes in Concentration or Partial Pressure

If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by adding a reactant or removing a product, Le Chatelier’s

Principle predicts that the equilibrium will shift forward, thus using up some of the added

reactant or producing more of the removed product. In this way, the equilibrium shift partially

counteracts the disturbance. Similarly, if the disturbance is the removal of a reactant or the

addition of a product, the equilibrium will shift backward, thus producing more of the removed

reactant or using up some of the added product. Once again, the shift tends to “undo” the

disturbance. It should be noted that when the disturbance is an increase or decrease of

concentration of reactant or product, the equilibrium shift tends to partially return the

concentration to its former value but it never gets all the way back to the former value.

The equilibrium constant value, Ke is not changed by the addition or removal of reactants or

products. Since the concentration of solids are constant, they do not appear in the equilibrium

constant expression and their concentrations do not change when disturbances cause

equilibrium shifts, however, the amount of the solid present most certainly does change. The

amount of solid can increase or decrease but the concentration does not change.

Changes in Temperature

Increasing the temperature of a system at equilibrium increases both forward and reverse

reaction rate, but it increases the endothermic reaction more that the exothermic. Therefore, in

an exothermic reaction, the reverse reaction is endothermic and so increasing the temperature

will increase the reverse reaction more than the forward reaction, and the equilibrium will shift

reaction).

2 Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet

backwards. Since the forward reaction produces heat and the reverse reaction consumes heat,

Le Chatelier’s Principle predicts that when heat is added, the equilibrium will shift backward,

consuming heat, and thus partially countering the disturbance. Cooling an exothermic reaction

slows both reactions but it slows the reverse more than the forward, hence the equilibrium will

shift forward producing more heat, thus partially undoing the stress.

For an endothermic reaction, all the same logic is involved except that the forward reaction is

endothermic and the reverse reaction is exothermic. Therefore, heating an endothermic reaction

causes the equilibrium to shift forward, and cooling an endothermic reaction causes the

equilibrium to shift backward.

When an equilibrium shifts due to a temperature change all the substances on one side of the

equation move in the same direction, that is, they all increase or they all decrease. Therefore,

the equilibrium constant value will also change when the temperature is changed.

Reaction Type Increase Temperature Decrease Temperature

Endothermic increases decreases

Exothermic decreases increases

Changes in Volume

When the volume of a reaction vessel is decreased, the partial pressure (and concentration) of

all gases in the container increase. The total pressure in the vessel will also increase. Le

Chatelier’s Principle predicts that the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to counteract

the disturbance. Therefore, the equilibrium will shift to produce fewer moles of gaseous

substances so that the pressure will decrease. Thus, decreasing the volume will cause the

equilibrium to shift toward the side with fewer moles of gaseous substances. The reverse is true

if the volume of the vessel is increased. The partial pressure of all gases will decrease, and the

total pressure will decrease, so the equilibrium shift will be toward the side that contains more

moles of gas, thus increasing pressure and partially counteracting the change.

The Addition of a Catalyst

The addition of a catalyst will increase both forward and reverse reaction rates. In the case of a

catalyst, both reaction rates are increased by the same amount and therefore there will be no

equilibrium shift.

Summary of

3 Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet

Exercises

Consider the following reaction.

1. If some is added to this system at equilibrium, which way will the equilibrium

2. When equilibrium is re-established after the is added, how will the concentration

3. When equilibrium is re-established after the is added, how will the concentration

4. When equilibrium is re-established after the is added, how will the amount

5. When equilibrium is re-established after the is added, how will the value of

6. If some is removed from this sytem at equilibrium, which way will the equilibrium

7. When equilibrium is re-established after the is removed, how will the concentration

8. When equilibrium is re-established after the is removed, how will the concentration

shift?

A. Toward the products.

B. Toward the reactants.

C. No shift.

of compare to the original concentration?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

of compare to the original concentration?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

of compare to the original amount?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

compare to the original value of ?

A. Higher.

B. Lower.

C. No change.

shift?

A. Toward the products.

B. Toward the reactants.

C. No shift.

of compare to the original concentration?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

of compare to the original concentration?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

4 Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet

9. When equilibrium is re-established after the is removed, how will the value of

10. If the temperature of this system at equilibrium is lowered, which way will the equilibrium

11. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was lowered, how will the

12. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was lowered, how will the value

13. If the volume of the reaction vessel for this system at equilibrium is decreased, which

14. When equilibrium is re-established after the volume was decreased, how will the

15. When equilibrium is re-established after the volume was decreased, how will the value

compare to the original value of ?

A. Higher.

B. Lower.

C. No change.

shift?

A. Toward the products.

B. Toward the reactants.

C. No shift.

concentration of compare to its original concentration?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

of compare to the original value of ?

A. Higher.

B. Lower.

C. No change.

way will the equilibrium shift?

A. Toward the products.

B. Toward the reactants.

C. No shift.

concentration of compare to its original concentration?

A. Higher.

B. Lower.

C. No change.

of compare to the original value of ?

A. Higher.

B. Lower.

C. No change.

5 Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet

Consider the following reaction.

16. If some is added to this sytem at equilibrium, which way will the equilibrium shift?

17. When equilibrium is re-established after the is added, how will the concentration

18. If the temperature of this system at equilibrium is raised, which way will the equilibrium

19. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was raised, how will the

20. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was raised, how will the value

A. Toward the products.

B. Toward the reactants.

C. No shift.

of compare to the original concentration?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

shift?

A. Toward the products.

B. Toward the reactants.

C. No shift.

concentration of compare to its original concentration?

A. Increased.

B. Decreased.

C. No change.

of compare to the original value of ?

A. Higher.

B. Lower.

C. No change.

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Module 3 – Case THERMOCHEMISTRY AND INTRO TO QUANTUM THEORY

Module 3 – Case

THERMOCHEMISTRY AND INTRO TO QUANTUM THEORY

Case Assignment

You will complete two virtual lab activities for this Case assignment using the PhET

website provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

You must have the most current versions of Java and in order to use this virtual

laboratory!

Review the following tutorials that demonstrate how to use the features of this lab:

http://chemcollective.org/help/vlabWalkthrough

http://chemcollective.org/help/vlabUserGuide

Solubility of salts

First use this linked handout on Solubility Equilibrium and review the Le Chatelier

Principle to prepare for your Case Part 1 and Part 2.

You will use https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/soluble-salts to examine the solubility of

salts, describe equilibrium of a saturated solution, and consider the effect of

thermodynamic and entropic factors on the solubility product constant (Ksp) for various

solids.

First complete Case 3 Part 1 Salts and Equilibrium

Next complete Case 3 Part 2 Comparing Q and Ksp

Assignment Expectations

Complete each of the activities above, and submit both as Word documents or pdfs to your

Case dropbox.  List your references at the end of each worksheet (refer to the Background

materials and linked resources).

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Solubility Equilibrium

Solubility Equilibrium

Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in water. The solubility is measured in

terms of concentration of an ion that is present in a smaller ratio in solution. On the other

hand, solubility equilibrium refers to the equilibrium between the dissolved salt (ions)

and undissolved salt that usually exists in a saturated solution or a solution of a sparingly

soluble salt. The word sparingly soluble salt refers to a salt that is partially (not

completely) soluble in water, as results of which, the equilibrium between dissolved ions

and undissolved salt is possible.

Solubility Product

To understand the concept of solubility product, consider the saturated solution of silver

chloride (AgCl), where the equilibrium exists between dissolved ions and undissolved

silver chloride according to the following equation.

Since this is an equilibrium reaction, we can write the equilibrium constant expression as

Ag Cl K

The concentrations of solids are either unknown or assumed to be constant. Hence we

combine [AgCl(s)] with K and label this constant as Ksp. Thus

[ ( )] [ ][ Kx AgCl s K Ag Cl sp ] + − = =

The Ksp is called the solubility product constant or simply solubility product.

In general, the solubility product of a compound is the product of molar concentrations of

ions raised to the power of their respective stoichiometric coefficients in the equilibrium

reaction.

In the above example, writing the Ksp expression for AgCl is very simple because only

one mole of Ag+

are formed, then the things get more complex. Consider the following examples:

+ −

[ ][

=

[ ()

AgCl s

]

]

ions and one mole of Cl-

ions are formed. If more than one mole of ions

• MgI2

2

• Ag2SO4

2

• Al(OH)3

2 MgI s Mg aq I aq () ( ) 2 ( ) ⎯⎯→ + −

←⎯⎯ + 2 2 [ ][ K Mg I sp

2 4 4 Ag SO s Ag aq SO () 2 ( ) ⎯⎯→ + −

←⎯⎯ + 2 2

3 Al OH s Al aq OH aq ( )() ( ) 3 ( ⎯⎯→ + −

←⎯⎯ + 3 3 [ ][ K Al OH sp

3

• Ca3(PO4)2

2 3

Important

Before you make an attempt to write Ksp for a given compound, few things you

should know:

3 42 4 Ca PO s Ca aq PO aq ( )() 3 ( ) 2 ( ⎯⎯→ + −

←⎯⎯ +

• How to break the compound into ions– identify the monatomic and

polyatomic ions

• Number of moles of each ion formed

• Charge on each ion

Write the equilibrium reaction with double arrows going in opposite directions with

proper phases first (s for solid, aq for solution) and then write Ksp.

The following table lists few Ksp values for low solubility hydroxides. You may refer to

any general chemistry textbook for more salts.

Compound Ksp Compound Ksp

[Al(OH)3] 1.8×10-33 Iron(II) hydroxide [Fe(II)(OH)2] 1.6×10-14

Aluminum hydroxide

[Ca(OH)2] 8.0×10-6 Iron (III) hydroxide [Fe(OH)3] 1.1×10-36

Calcium hydroxide

[Cr(OH)3] 3.0×10-29 Magnesium hydroxide

Chromium(III) hydroxide

[Cu(OH)2] 2.2×10-20 Zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2] 1.8×10-14

Copper(II) hydroxide

What do the Ksp values tell us?

Ksp values are derived from the concentrations of ions in equilibrium reactions; higher the

concentrations of ions, greater the Ksp. Higher the concentrations of ions means greater

the solubility of the salt. Therefore, the magnitude of Ksp directly indicates the solubility

of the salt in water. For example, comparing the Ksp of aluminum hydroxide and calcium

hydroxide, it is evident that calcium hydroxide is more soluble in water than aluminum

hydroxide.

Example

Arrange the following salts in order of increasing solubility.

(a) Aluminum hydroxide [Al (OH)3] (Ksp=1.8×10-33)

(b) Calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2] (Ksp=8.0×10-6)

(c) Chromium (III) hydroxide [Cr (OH)3] (Ksp = 3.0×10-29)

(d) Copper (II) hydroxide [Cu (OH)2] (Ksp=2.2×10-20)

Answer

Higher the Ksp means greater the solubility. Arranging the above salts from low Ksp to

high Ksp, we have

Al(OH)3 < Cr(OH)3 < Cu(OH)2 < Ca(OH)2

Solubility

In a simple term, solubility is the dissolving ability of a salt in a fixed amount of water. It

is measured by the concentration of an ion that is present in a smaller proportion (smaller

number of moles). The above discussed Ksp values are useful in comparing the

solubilities of group of salts, but not in assessing their actual solubilities. When we need

to calculate the actual solubility of the salt, we use either the molar solubility, which is

defined as the number moles of solute in 1 L of saturated solution (moles per liter), or

solubility that is defined as the number of grams of solute in 1 L saturated solution

(grams per liter). Thus you can see there are two ways to define solubility. However,

both are related through the molar mass.

Suppose, you want to convert solubility (g/L) to molar solubility (mol/L), you divide

solubility by molar mass (g/mol):

mol g g mol mol x x

L L molar mass g mol L g L = = =

Suppose, you want to convert molar solubility (mol/L) to solubility(g/L), you multiply

molar solubility by molar mass (g/mol):

g mol molar mass g mol mol g g x x

L L L = = mol L =

1

(/ )

(/ )

1

Relationship between Ksp and solubility

Solubility is the molar concentration and Ksp is the product of molar concentrations, and

hence both are related to one another. In the following, we develop relationships between

these two for various salts.

Let us illustrate the concept using a simple example of AgCl that dissociates into one

cation (Ag+

AgCl s Ag aq Cl aq () ( ) ( ) ⎯⎯→ + −

The Ksp expression for this is

[ ][ K Ag Cl sp

Let s be the molar solubility(mol/L) of Ag+

ion because number of Ag+

Cl-

above equilibrium reaction. That is,

s = [Ag+

Substituting these into Ksp equation, we get

2 [ ][ ] ( ) ( ) K Ag Cl s x s sp

or sp s K =

Thus, the molar solubility is just square root of the Ksp.

We can extend similar procedure to develop the relationship between Ksp and s for more

complicated compounds:

Barium chloride (BaCl2)

2

s 2s

22 2 [ ][ ] ( )(2 ) 4 K Ba Cl s s sp

or s = (Ksp/4)1/3

) and one anion (Cl-

←⎯⎯ +

) at equilibrium:

+ − = ]

ion. This will also be the molar solubility of

] and s = [Cl-

ions is equal to number of Cl-

]

+ − = =

= s

2 BaCl s Ba aq Cl aq () ( ) 2 ( ) ⎯⎯→ + −

←⎯⎯ +

+ − = = 3 = s

Silver sulfide (Ag2S)

2

2s s

22 2 3 [ ] [ ] (2 ) ( ) 4 K Ag S s s sp

or s = (Ksp/4)1/3

Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3)

2 Ag S s Ag aq S aq () 2 ( ) ( ) ⎯⎯→ + −

←⎯⎯ +

+ − = = = s

3 Al OH s Al aq OH aq ( )() ( ) 3 ( ⎯⎯→ + −

s 3s

33 3 [ ][ ] ( )(3 ) 27 K Al OH s s sp

+ − = = 4 = s

←⎯⎯ +

3

or s =(Ksp/27)1/4

Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2)

2 3

3s 2s

3 42 4 Ca PO s Ca aq PO aq ( )() 3 ( ) 2 ( ⎯⎯→ + −

←⎯⎯ +

4 [ ] [ ] (3 ) (2 ) 108 K Ca PO s s sp

+ − = =

23 32 3 2 5

or s=(Ksp/108)1/5

In each of the above salts, s is the concentration of the ion that is present in a smaller

mole ratio.

Calculating Ksp from solubility

Example

Calculate the Ksp of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) if the solubility is 0.56 g/L.

Answer

Solubility is the concentration of the ion present in a smaller proportion. Here both Ca2+

ion and SO4

2- ion are present in an equal proportion according to the following equation.

4 4 CaSO s Ca aq SO aq () ( ) ( ) ⎯⎯→ + −

The Ksp is written as

4 [ ][ K Ca SO sp

In order to evaluate Ksp, we need the molar concentrations (mol/L), but the solubility is

given g/L. First, we need to convert g/L to mol/L:

0.56 1 4.1 10

Thus we have

[Ca2+] = [SO4

Now we can determine Ksp:

4 [ ][ ] (4.1 10 )(4.1 10 ) K Ca SO x x sp

= 1.7 x 10-5

2 2

←⎯⎯ +

2 2

+ − = ]

g CaSO mol CaSO x x

4 4 3

1 ln 136.2

L so g CaSO

− =

4

2-] = 4.1×10-3

22 3

+− − = = −3

Calculating solubility from Ksp

Example

Calculate the molar solubility of Cu(OH)2 if Ksp = 2.2 x10-20.

Answer

First we write the Ksp expression for Cu(OH)2 as

2 Cu OH s Cu aq OH aq ( )() ( ) 2 ( ⎯⎯→ + −

2 2 [ ][ K Cu OH sp

Let s be the molar solubility of Cu2+, i.e., [Cu2+]= s. Then 2s will be the concentration of

, i.e., [OH-

OH-

Ksp = 2.2x 10-20 = (s)(2s)2

= 2.2 x 10-20 / 4

3

s

Hence s = (2.2 x 10-20/4)1/3 =1.8 x 10-7 mol/L = 1.8 x 10-7 M

2

←⎯⎯ +

+ − = ]

] = 2s. Then Ksp becomes

= 4s3

Predicting the Formation of Precipitate

Precipitate is the solid formed as a result of chemical reaction between two or more

solutions. Let say that you mix two solutions, how do you know whether the precipitate

forms or not? Before you can answer this question, you got to know what kind of

precipitate is going to form using the solubility rules. From the information given in the

problem, first calculate the molar concentrations of the ions responsible for the

precipitate. Next calculate the reaction quotient Q (this is exactly the same as Ksp except

it is based on the initial (given) concentrations) and compare it with Ksp.

If Q > Ksp precipitate will form otherwise no.

Example

Exactly 100 ml of 0.05 M AgNO3 are added to exactly 500 ml of 0.05 M HCl. Will a

precipitate form?

Answer

The ions present in solution are Ag+

only AgCl precipitate is possible. From the given information, first we calculate the

molar concentrations of Ag+

ml Ag xM x ml

100 3 [ ] 0.05 8.3 10 600

ml Cl x M x M

500 2 [ ] 0.05 4.2 10 600

Note the 600ml is the total volume of the solution. Then we calculate Q

Q = [Ag+

= 3.5×10-4

Therefore

Q ( = 3.5 x 10-4) > Ksp (=1.6×10-10))

The precipitate of AgCl will form.

and Cl-

, H+, and Cl-

, NO3

ions:

+ − = = M

− − = =

ml

][Cl-

] = (8.3 x 10-3)(4.2×10-2)

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Introduction to Solubility PhET Lab (created 3/2011)

Introduction to Solubility PhET Lab (created 3/2011)

We can express concentrations in terms of moles solute per liters of solution

When we cook pasta, we frequently dissolve table salt in water. Is there a limit to how

much salt we can get into the water?

When ionic-bonded compounds (like table salt, NaCl) are dissolved in polar solvents

(like water), the polar water molecules act to pull the ions in the compound apart.

When this happens (called dissociation), ions are released into the solution. Is there a

limit to the number of ions that can exist in solution?

Please use your textbook, your notes, or the internet to define the following terms:

Saturated ____________________________________________________________________________

Unsaturated ____________________________________________________________________________

Supersaturated ____________________________________________________________________________

Molarity ____________________________________________________________________________

Cation ____________________________________________________________________________

Anion ____________________________________________________________________________

Dissociation ____________________________________________________________________________

Solubility ____________________________________________________________________________

Procedure PhET Simulations  Play With Sims  Chemistry Salts and Solubility 

Take some time and familiarize yourself with the simulation before answering the below questions:

1. What happens to the bound Na+ and Cl- ions as they enter the water?

______________________________________________________________________________________

2. Is there a point at which no more sodium and chloride ions will dissolve? How do you know?

______________________________________________________________________________________

3. What do we call a solution that has as many ions as it can hold?

__________________________________________________________________________

4. What happens if you add additional, solid NaCl after the maximum has been reached?

__________________________________________________________________________

5. What happens when more water is added to a saturated solution?

__________________________________________________________________________

6. What happens to the ions bound together as a solid when the solution’s volume is reduced?

__________________________________________________________________________

7. How many total Na + ions can you add until no more will dissolve (the maximum amount)?

__________________________________________________________________________

8. How many moles does this many ions represent? (recall, 1 mole = 6.02 x 10 23 things)

______________________________________________________________________________________

9. What volume (in Liters) did you use to get the saturation point in #7 above?

______________________________________________________________________________________

10. What concentration is this? (In mole/L, use #8 and #9’s answers) This is molarity, M.

______________________________________________________________________________________

For each slightly soluble salt…

1. Determine the Chemical Formula

2. Write a Dissociation Equation (Example: NaCl (s)  Na + (aq) + Cl – (aq) )

3. Determine Concentration (mole/L) of the molecule and EACH ION in the compound in a saturated solution.

Remember…to find concentration in Molarity: calculate moles present, divide moles into volume in Liters.

↓Scratch area to show your work↓

1. Chemical Formula: ___________________________________________

2. Dissociation Equation: _________________________________________

3. Concentration of entire molecule at saturation (M): ___________________

4. Concentration of cation (+) at saturation (M): ________________________

5. Concentration of anion (-) at saturation (M): ________________________

6. Chemical Formula: ___________________________________________

7. Dissociation Equation: _________________________________________

8. Concentration of entire molecule at saturation (M): ___________________

9. Concentration of cation (+) at saturation (M): ________________________

10. Concentration of anion (-) at saturation (M): ________________________

11. Chemical Formula: ___________________________________________

12. Dissociation Equation: _________________________________________

13. Concentration of entire molecule at saturation (M): ___________________

14. Concentration of cation (+) at saturation (M): ________________________

15. Concentration of anion (-) at saturation (M): ________________________

16. Chemical Formula: ___________________________________________

17. Dissociation Equation: _________________________________________

18. Concentration of entire molecule at saturation (M): ___________________

19. Concentration of cation (+) at saturation (M): ________________________

20. Concentration of anion (-) at saturation (M): ________________________

Name:_______________________

Post-Lab Conclusion Questions and Calculations

1. Adding water to a solution of ions increases / decreases / doesn’t change concentration.

2. Reducing volume of an entire solution increases / decreases / doesn’t change concentration.

3. Adding more solid compound to an unsaturated solution increases / decreases / doesn’t change concentration.

4. Adding more solid compound to a saturated solution increases / decreases / doesn’t change concentration.

5. The bound ions of a solid compound at the bottom of a saturated solution stay bound / dissolve and are

6. Determine the concentration of a solution of 2.4 moles of sugar (no dissociation) in 3.5 L of water

_______________________ M

7. How many moles of NaCl would be required to produce .95 L of a .58 M NaCl solution?

_______________________ mol

8. What volume of water would be required to dissolve 67 grams of Lithium Fluoride (LiF) to a concentration of

_______________________ L

9. What is the concentration of a solution of 3.5 x10 22 molecules of sugar in 25 mL of water?

_______________________ M

10. How many moles of FeCl 3 (compound) are present in 2.1 L of a .85 M solution?

11. How many moles of Fe 3+ ions are present in this solution?

12. How many moles of Cl- are present in this solution?

13. What is the concentration of a solution made from 130 grams of Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 in 3.9 L of water?

__________________ mol FeCl 3

___________________ mol Fe 3+

_____________________mol Cl –

14. What is the concentration of Copper (II) ions in the above solution?

15. What is the concentration of Phosphate ions in the above solution?

_______________________ M

_______________________ M

_______________________

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