Input/Output project | WriteDen

10 Aug Input/Output project

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in General Questions

Please first read through the following sections. Assignment details are towards the bottom.

Input/Output (I/O) devices are another important part of a computer. The six types of commonly used I/O devices are the keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, magnetic disk, and thumb drive. An I/O module is a software program developed to control a specific I/O device. The I/O module is a critical architectural element of a computer system. The technique used to implement an I/O module’s function is called an I/O control. There are only three types of I/O controls.

Programmed I/O (also called polling I/O) is the most commonly used I/O control technique for any type of data that are exchanged between the central processing unit (CPU) and the I/O module of an I/O device. When the CPU encounters an I/O-related instruction, the CPU will issue a command to a corresponding I/O module, which is a set of instructions to perform the required I/O operations in the I/O status register. When the CPU issues a command to the I/O module, it must wait and check the status register in a busy loop until the I/O operation is completed, as indicated by the proper bit set in the status register.

Read this article on Programmed I/O ( to see more about program-controlled I/O.

Interrupt-driven I/O is the I/O control module that sends a program interrupt signal to the CPU for it to notice that the I/O activities of an I/O device need its attention for the I/O data transferring (I/O Techniques, n.d.b). When the time slot for the priority level of the I/O interrupt arrives, the CPU enters an interrupt service routine, which will complete the required I/O operations. The interrupt-driven I/O has to have hardware and software that are more complex but make for a far better use of the computer’s time and capacities.

Read this article on Interrupt Driven I/O ( of interrupt-driven I/O.

Direct memory access (DMA) is the I/O control that transfers data within the main memory and the external device without having to pass data through the CPU (I/O Techniques, n.d.a). It allows the CPU to complete other tasks in parallel as the DMA handles the data exchange between I/O devices and the main memory. Direct memory access is especially efficient when large volumes of data have to be transferred. For DMA to work, the CPU and DMA module must share a system bus. That is, the DMA module must use the bus only when the processor does not need it, or it must force the processor to suspend operations temporarily through a technique called cycle stealing.

Read this article on Direct Memory Access (DMA) ( of DMA.

Input/Output Device Characteristics

Any I/O device can be described using three qualities. To comprehensively describe any I/O device, it is best to use the behavior, communication partner, and I/O control categories to explain its characteristics. The following table includes the characteristics of some common I/O devices:

I/O Device Behavior Type Communication Partner Type I/O Control Type

Keyboard Input Human Programmed I/O or interrupt-driven I/O

Mouse Input Human Programmed I/O or interrupt-driven I/O

Monitor Output Human Programmed I/O or interrupt-driven I/O

Printer Output Human Programmed I/O or interrupt-driven I/O

Network interface Input or output Machine Programmed I/O, interrupt-driven I/O, or DMA

Disk (magnetic) Storage Machine Programmed I/O, interrupt-driven I/O, or DMA

Disk (optical) Storage Machine Programmed I/O, interrupt-driven I/O, or DMA

Assignment Overview

Imagine for a moment that you are working at a start-up company that has an office computer system consisting of one database server computer and 10 desktop or laptop computers that are connected on an Ethernet.

John Givens and Linda Hughes are two employees who have created a design proposal on how to use I/O controls to manage the data communication needed among all of the computers. John’s proposal uses the program-controlled I/O to implement data transfer through an Ethernet card for all eleven computers. Linda’s proposal uses interrupt-driven I/O and DMA to implement data transfer through an Ethernet card for the database server computer and uses interrupt-driven I/O to implement data transfer through an Ethernet card for all desktop or laptop computers.

Assignment Details

Consider the given computer system and the two design proposals made by John and Linda carefully, and then write a short assessment that answers each of the following questions:

Whose recommendation is the best for the given computer system?

o What is the most important thing in that proposal that helped you reach your conclusion?

What suggestion would you provide to both John and Linda to further improve their proposals?

Please use the following layout for your report:

Cover page

o Course Number

o Student Name

o Date

Content (2 pages)

o Introduction

Brief description of the targeted computer system

Structure of the report

o Design Proposals

Design Proposal 1 (Based on the specification of John’s proposal)

Design Proposal 2 (Based on the specification of Linda’s proposal)

o Pros and Cons 

Pros and cons of Proposal 1

Pros and cons of Proposal 2

o Suggestions

Comments on each proposal

Possible changes recommended for each proposal

For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.

Grading Criteria

Expectation Points Possible Points Earned Comments

Basic Concepts: Students should demonstrate understanding of the basic concepts of each type of I/O control. 35

Suitability: Students should demonstrate understanding of the suitability of each type of I/O control in real-world situations. 35

Pros and Cons: Students should demonstrate understanding of the pros and cons of each type of I/O control toward the given requirements. 30

Organization: Assignment presents information logically and is clearly relevant to discussion topic. 15

Professional Language: Assignment contains accurate grammar, spelling, and/or punctuation with few or no errors. 10

Total Points 125


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