Instructions In at least 300 words, reply to the original poster. You must use a

In at least 300 words, reply to the original poster. You must use at least two scholarly journals to support your response.  You must also use at least one reference from the New International Version Bible.  All citations must be in APA 7th Edition format with both in-text citations and a References page.  If citations are from a book, the page number must be included.  Journals must be from within the past 5 years.  You must also use the attached text as a reference.
FYI…In the replies, many students do not analyze other students’ comments. Remember, you should write about the other student’s comments; that is, the good and bad points. Don’t just say you agree and tell the other student your opinion or just ask questions; that’s not sufficient. Look at several of their comments; list them in your reply, for context, and then critique them. I.e.:  I agree that on this point…; however, I disagree that it should be… On the other hand, you said that…, and, while I agree on part of that, I believe a better way… That’s analysis. Again, don’t simply tell them your opinions, as that is the biggest problem I see. Listing their comments is also important so that it gives a better understanding of what you are saying, according to the context of the comments.
Public administrators conduct research to plan, solve problems, and support their decisions. They must collect data to support these tasks and other courses of action. Unfortunately, the literature indicates that these public administrators mostly use quantitative methods. What can qualitative research offer than quantitative methods cannot offer to support these public administration tasks?
Original Poster (Christopher Arnold)
Scholars concur that qualitative research methods in public administration fulfill a valuable role yet are underrepresented as an approach within the overall body of academic literature (Ospina et al., 2018). Despite the wide range of perspectives, theories, ontologies, and methods, purely qualitative methods have been perceived as a niche and, more so, have served as a buttress for quantitative data in mixed methods inquiries (Ospina et al., 2018). Yet qualitative research methods informed by a biblical-covenantal worldview offer several advantages to public administration researchers over quantitative methods, particularly in support of practical, real-world applications (Lune & Berg, 2017).
1 Thessalonians 5:21 instructs us to test all things and hold fast to that which is good. This suggests that as public administration researchers, we should seek to understand the cultural, economic, political, and social context of public administration tasks to support data-driven decision-making and problem-solving (Lune & Berg, 2017).
For example, in the study of federalism and intergovernmental relations, where power is shared between various agencies across executive, legislative, and judicial branches at one or more layers of government, a purely quantitative approach is overly reductive, since quantifying outputs into zeros and ones does not help qualify the outcomes and the impacts of policymaking (O’Toole, 1990). Qualitative methods, on the other hand, provide a nuanced understanding of the dynamics between stakeholders, including elected officials, public administrators, and special interest groups, elucidate the inputs that influence the outcomes, and enable program evaluation of the implementation of policies to identify the factors which facilitate or hinder effective governance and stewardship (Lune & Berg, 2017).
These methods also become useful in defining unintended consequences, which aids in designing more effective and responsive policies (Stout, 2013). Romans 13:1 means that every person should be subject to the governing authorities. Paul’s was underpinned by the message that while we are obligated to obey, we should not do so unquestioningly, particularly when the actions of the government of, by, and for the people conflict with a higher moral duty (Ingram et al., 2003).
Qualitative research methods provide the ways and means to explore these phenomena and explore the human experience with public administration, something numerical data cannot provide (Lune & Berg, 2017). “For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him?” (1 Corinthians 2:11). Public administration researchers pursue knowledge not merely for the sake of knowledge but to gain wisdom and positively affect the policies, programs and services their system of government seeks to provide (Stout, 2013).
The tasks that comprise intergovernmental affairs, intergovernmental relations, and intergovernmental management, existing within a larger ethical framework, may impact different communities differently (Bolleyer, 2011). While the numbers may indicate a policy is adhering to program requirements or meeting a certain bottom-line policy goal, qualitative review can make policymaking more flexible and responsive by understanding how these tasks are experienced and perceived (Lune & Berg, 2017).
As the saying goes, perception is reality; various epistemologies argue that reality is reality (Rocheleau, 1986). How that reality is shaped varies from school to school (Ospina et al., 2018). “Then said Pilate unto him, ‘What is truth?’” (John 18:38). Romans 10:12 illustrated how earthly distinctions are meaningless to the heavenly father, and all who call upon him shall abound in riches. Transformative leaders seek to bridge this divide and address structural inequalities to promote equitable governance (Fischer, 2010). This is evocative of the covenantal duty or obligation between public administrators and those they govern, with their consent (Fischer, 2017).
Thus, seeing beyond the numbers can be said to help researchers understand the often subjective realities of the individuals and communities impacted by public administration (Stout, 2013). When insights from a Christian worldview and a biblical-covenantal perspective are incorporated, policymaking not only becomes more effective, but more just (Fischer, 2017). Transformation is enabled through servant leadership and the performance of stewardship, which reflects the experiences and needs of all individuals and organizations in the communities with a single set of values (Fischer, 2010). Recognizing these advantages, universities providing instruction in public administration research have made great strides in incorporating instruction in qualitative methods into their mandatory curricula (Stout, 2013). “The King will reply, ‘Truly I tell you, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers and sisters of mine, you did for me.’” (Matthew 25:40).
Word Count: 897
Bolleyer, N. (2011). The influence of political parties on policy coordination. Governance, 24(3),
Fischer, K. (2010). A biblical-covenantal perspective on organizational behavior & leadership,
Faculty Publications and Presentations, 523.
Fischer, K. J. (2017). The power of the covenant idea for leadership, reform, and ethical
behavior. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 10(2), 13.
Ingram, T. N., LaForge, R. W., Avila, R. A., Schwepker Jr, C. H., & Williams, M. R. (2003).
Government: A Public Administration Perspective. ME Sharpe.
Lune, H., & Berg, B.L. (2017). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences, 9th.
Ospina, S. M., Esteve, M., & Lee, S. (2018). Assessing qualitative studies in public
administration research. Public Administration Review, 78(4), 593-605.
O’Toole Jr., L.J. (1990). Theoretical developments in public administration: Implications for
the study of federalism. Governance 3(4), 394-415.
Rocheleau, B. (1986). Public perception of program effectiveness and worth: A
review. Evaluation and Program Planning, 9(1), 31-37.
Stout, M. (2013). Preparing public administration scholars for qualitative inquiry: A status
report. Public Administration Research, 2(1), 11.