Introduction Throughout this course, we have been learning about the structure,

Throughout this course, we have been learning about the structure, relationships, control, and planning of criminal justice organizations. In our final module, we learned that organizational planning and change requires a rational approach to track and achieve outcomes (objectives). For most organizations, the desired outcomes and ways of achieving them need to be clearly expressed. Moreover, the organizational structures, strategies, technologies, processes, etc. need to be clearly linked to achieving those expressed outcomes.
Planned change is purposeful. Decisions are made to improve an organization. Strategic planning is similar in that leaders assume some change is needed for the organization to achieve the desired future. Organizational planning may include problem-solving, defining goals and constraints, developing alternatives and analyzing consequences, and analyzing policies. Several methods and tools may be used to plan for organizational change, including GAP analysis, SWOT analysis, SMART objectives, developing a theory of change, logic modeling, and program evaluation.
In this paper assignment, students will be applying the planned change process and tools to a real criminal justice problem – the 1993 and 2001 terrorist attacks of the World Trade Center in New York City. This examination of public safety outcomes begins prior to the building of the towers and includes reflections and evaluations subsequent to both terrorist attacks. Many organizations, both CJO and non-CJO, impacted the safety outcomes of citizens and public-service personnel, as well as the destruction of property.
Teacher’s note – Although planning is future oriented, we are taking a “lessons learned” approach by reading 102 Minutes. This allows students to see the “bigger picture” of how organizations make decisions that affect public safety. So, do the best you can to practice the logic modeling tools, etc., from this retrospective approach. Although we can’t fix history, we can learn from it.
Purpose of this Assignment
For this paper, students are to read the book 102 Minutes by Dwyer and Flynn and apply the information in the book to the organizational planning processes learned in this course. The planning processes and tools learned in this course will be used to evaluate the decisions which resulted in negative public safety outcomes when terrorists attacked the Twin Towers in New York City.
This paper is an integrative learning experience. The AACU (2009) defines “integrative learning” as “an understanding and a disposition that a student builds across the curriculum and co-curriculum, from making simple connections among ideas and experiences to synthesizing and transferring learning to new, complex situations within and beyond the campus” (p. 1).
The final paper is designed to assess students’ “transfer” of knowledge. “Transfer” is defined as, “adapts and applies skills, abilities, theories, or methodologies gained in one situation to new situations” (AACU, 2009, p. 1).
Paper Criteria
Students are applying the organizational planning process and tools to the public safety outcomes related to the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City.
For this paper, students should be sure to do the following:
Clearly identify the public safety outcome(s) related to the two terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers, as detailed in the book 102 Minutes.
When planning, everything should tie back to the intended outcomes.
Identify and describe the decision-making organizations that impacted the public safety outcomes of the Twin Towers of New York City, as detailed in the book 102 Minutes.
Be sure to include decisions made by organizations prior, during, and subsequent to the 1993 and 2001 attacks.
Apply the organizational learning processes and tools learned in this course.
Include a SWOT analysis (which informs your logic model).
Include a logic model to model the theory of what did change and what “should” have changed after the 1993 and 2001 attacks.
Use information learned in this course
Use this Word logic model template
Use SMART objectives
For additional information on SWOT, SMART objectives, and logic modeling see chapter 13 and the weblinks on the Ch 13 Organizational Change
A substantial part of your paper should be a narrative of your logic model as to how the inputs, activities, etc. lead or should have lead to measurable outcomes.
Evaluate the decisions made by the organizations and their impact on the public safety outcome(s)/objectives you identified.
Provide evidence throughout the paper from your sources and use citations, when appropriate
As you craft your paper, remember the focus of this course is organizational decision-making.
Use graduate level writing expectations, which include:
the Grading rubric for this assignment
the General Evaluation Rubric for this course
Bloom’s taxonomy
of learning and critical thinking
Finding and Citing Sources
The two primary sources to be used and cited in this paper are Criminal Justice Organizations by Potter and Humiston (2017) and 102 Minutes by Dwyer and Flynn (2011).
Scholarly sources are also required. Scholarly sources are primary sources (original writings/articles) typically found in scholarly journals. For more information on finding scholarly articles, see page in Webcourses entitled Finding Articles.
Criminal justice scholarship traditionally uses APA citation style. For more information on APA style, see the page in course entitled Citing and Summarizing an Article
You may also find the “Research Guide” and “UCF Library Tools” pages listed at the left of this course to be quite useful.
Additional Paper Requirements
Paper is to be 9-11 pages in length.
Submissions that are 9 pages in length must be 9 complete pages.
Partial pages do not constitute a complete page.
Any submissions that do not meet the basic page-length requirement will not receive full credit. Instructor will use her discretion outside the grading rubric.
The paper length does not include title or reference pages.
A title or cover page is not required.
An abstract is not required.
A reference page is required.
The paper length does include the logic model figure.
The two primary sources to be used and cited are Criminal Justice Organizations by Potter and Humiston (2017) and 102 Minutes by Dwyer and Flynn (2011).
A minimum of three (3) scholarly sources (i.e., articles from scholarly journals or books) are also required
Additional sources, such as websites, may be used, but they do not count toward the number of required scholarly sources
Use standard 12-point, Times New Roman font with one-inch margins (all around), and double spacing
Be sure to include in-text citations and full references using proper APA formatting for all sources
If you need writing assistance, make a consultation with the University Writing Center
. You should schedule an appointment as early as possible.
A great online writing reference is Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL)
(Links to an external site.)
. Get tips on writing, such as:
Writing a Thesis statement
(Links to an external site.)
(Links to an external site.)
(Links to an external site.)
APA Citation Style
(Links to an external site.)
and more!
See the Webcourse for additional assistance in finding articles and citing and summarizing an empirical article.

Introduction Throughout this course, we have been learning about the structure,
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