NR 507 Week 8: Genomes, Genetic Alterations, and Reproductive Disorders

NR 507 Week 8: Genomes, Genetic Alterations, and Reproductive Disorders

NR 507 Week 8: Genomes, Genetic Alterations, and Reproductive Disorders

This week, one of the concepts we read about is genotype (genetic characteristics) and phenotype (physical characteristics) in males and females. I am particularly interested in how genotype and phenotype influence disease states in twins and whether twins have the same health problems. The reading indicates if one twin is diagnosed with a disease, the other twin has a higher risk of developing the same disease. My question is, “Does the risk of getting a particular disease increase or decrease more among identical twins or fraternal twins?”

I did some research, and I found out the answer to your question. Twins share the same genes, but their environments become more different as they age. This unique aspect of twins makes them an exceptional model to considerate how genes and the environment donate to certain traits, extraordinarily complex behaviors, and diseases.
According to the article, an example of how genetic disease is when just one twin gets a disease, researchers can look for elements in the twins’ environments that are different. Or when both twins get a disease, researchers can look for genetic factors shared among similar twin pairs. These types of data are extraordinarily powerful when collected from large numbers of twins. Such studies can help pinpoint the molecular mechanism of a disease and determine the extent of environmental influence, potentially leading to the prevention and treatment of complex diseases.
To illustrate, for twins with schizophrenia, 50% of identical twins share the disease, while only about 10-15% of fraternal twins do. This difference is evidence for a strong genetic component in susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, the fact that both identical twins in a pair don’t develop the disease 100% of the time indicates that other factors are involved. I hope that helped to give you a better understanding of the disease process among twins.
Comparing Identical and Fraternal Twins: A higher percentage of disease incidence in both identical twins are the first indication of a genetic component. Rates lower than 100% in identical twins indicates that DNA alone does not determine susceptibility to disease.

Insights from Identical Twins 2018, Retrieved from,

It is so hard to believe that we are finally in the last week of this class. I have learned so much during this class and gained knowledge about the body systems and disease processed that I can use in the workplace at this time as well as the nurse practitioner. This week we learned about genes and the reproductive system. I have always found genomics so interesting because it is this study that reveals why we as individual human beings are the way we are. From physical characteristics to hereditary disorders genomics attempts to gain an understanding of how these traits are passed down from parent to offspring. Another topic that I have a special interest in is the reproductive disorders of the female. One disorder that is always so interesting to me is uterine fibroids. This disorder causes symptoms in women such as severe bleeding during menstrual cycles, abdominal pain, and distention. I see this occurrence many times in the workplace and had the opportunity in a past specialty placement to nurse women who had this disorder and would often have to undergo a myomectomy to remove the fibroids or in some cases even a hysterectomy to prevent the reoccurrence of fibroids. The male and female reproductive systems are very interesting and also help us to gain an understanding of the process of conception and for women the pregnancy process. I am so thankful for all of the knowledge gained from this course and very nervous about this final exam. I wish everyone the best of luck and hope we all continue this journey together.

This week’s lesson explored the concepts related to genomics, genetics and both male and female reproductive systems. In which the female reproductive complications, and various interventions aimed at female reproduction were more intriguing, to the student. Although I had a basic understanding of the pathological process affecting women that have chronic complications with menstruation. A significant number of women often have an end result of either having a version of a hysterectomy or surgical ablation related to excessive blood loss. The readings provided a more in depth understanding of issues faced by women across multiple ethnicities. In which the student garnered a continued understanding about uterine fibroids, being classified as benign tumors with the propensity to develop into a metastatic neoplasm. In addition to learning that sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia and gonorrhea were not necessarily the cause for pelvic inflammatory disease, but an associated risk factor. Contributing to infertility and other various reproductive complications “(McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). The lesson on female reproductive health, allowed the student to be able to process, how and why television commercials and obstetricians promote hormone replacement therapy, and/or intrauterine contraceptive devices. As research has shown these interventions can improve complications associated with dysmenorrhea, and potentially reduce the need for invasive surgical intervention (McCance et al., 2014). I have enjoyed participating in this online class and forum with each of you. Especially the exchange and knowledge in which we all contributed to. I would like to wish everyone prosperity and success and we progress towards meeting our goal of becoming family nurse practitioners.

Respectfully submitted,


McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby

Reference no: EM132069492

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