The Civil War ended on April 9, 1865, and the original goal of the North to preserve the Union was accomplished. The task that lay before Lincoln and Congress was to reintegrate the rebellious Southern states into the Union. For many white southerners “Reconstruction was a vicious and destructive experience – a period when vindictive Northerners inflicted humiliation and revenge on a pro-state South.”

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The Civil War ended on April 9, 1865, and the original goal of the North to preserve the Union was accomplished. The task that lay before Lincoln and Congress was to reintegrate the rebellious Southern states into the Union. For many white southerners “Reconstruction was a vicious and destructive experience – a period when vindictive Northerners inflicted humiliation and revenge on a pro-state South.”

In order to prepare for this discussion forum:

Review and identify the relevant sections of Chapters 17 and 18 that support your discussion.
Review and identify relevant information on the linked PBS American Experience site, Reconstruction The Second Civil War
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/featur…

This link will direct you to the full transcript of the wade davis bill, gov/milestone-documents/list“>https://www.archives.gov/milestone-documents/list

What does it suggest about the prevailing Reconstruction sentiments in Congress?
Read the section in Chapter 17 which discusses the Black Codes, and the linked site on the Black Codes, org/humanities/us-history/civil-war-era/reconstruction/a/black-codes”>https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/…
Read the linked document, a selection from The Ills Of the South (attached) written by Charles H. Okten, a Mississippi Baptist preacher, and schoolteacher, in which he describes conditions for Black Americans under the sharecropping and crop-lien system.
Were the Black Codes another form of slavery?
Based on Okten’s statements, discuss how the sharecropping/crop lien system created a vicious cycle. Was this system simply another version of slavery? Why or why not.
Consider the following statement: “The persistence of racism in both the North and the South lay at the heart of Reconstruction’s failure.” Agree or disagree, and explain your position.
Directly and completely answer at least ONE question. Please make sure that you clearly indicate which question you have chosen to discuss. Clearly and accurately explain your answer based on factual information contained in the assigned readings. (80 points)
Students must respond to at least one fellow student’s posting explaining the reason(s) for their agreement or disagreement, with the arguments that have been presented, in order to get full credit for the discussion. (20 points)
When posting your response to a fellow student’s comment, please try whenever possible, to select the question that you did not address for your discussion.
Make sure that all statements are supported with facts from the reading selections.

Part 2:

reply to this comment below with at least 4-5 sentences.

In fact, they were. The purpose of the Black codes was to maintain slavery and reestablish white dominance in society. After the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, legislation known as the “black codes” were passed. These laws were passed to maintain the social, political, and economic dominance of free white people over black people, but to varying degrees in the various states. These laws were intended to keep slavery in existence, if not in its original form then at least in a weak but still effective version.

The operation of these rules may be used to understand how the free white maintained their political, economic, and social dominance. In order to preserve white social and political dominance, these laws did not provide blacks the right to vote, the right to attend public schools, the right to equal treatment under the law, etc. Last but not least, laws were established to discriminate against the freed Blacks in order to lessen their influence over Black slaves. Vagrancy legislation, together with other regulations, assured a continuing supply of cheap labor, so maintaining economic dominance. These restrictions included the Second Amendment’s prohibition on the carrying of weapons, congregating for religion in large crowds, and not being literate.

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