Instructions *Please read carefully*
This assignment focuses on the topic of race, gender and discrimination in organizations. Make use of the concepts and perspectives discussed in the readings and class discussions to write the assignment. This assignment involves applying these concepts to the organizations and industries in one empirical example. You can feel free to criticize the readings or discuss how these theories do not fit the examples. Use the “How to Write Your Assignments” section below to guide you.
We have discussed several examples and concepts about race and gender thus far. In this assignment you should apply concepts about race and gender (or both) to one of the given empirical examples below. Which concepts appear to be the most useful for the empirical examples of the organization?
Use the following empirical example:
What Sheryl Sandberg’s Exit Reveals About Women’s Progress in Tech https://www.nytimes.com/2022/06/03/technology/sheryl-sandberg-women-in-tech.html?s mid=urlshare
How to Write Your Assignments
Should be double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font, and contain approximately 1,000 words (or eight paragraphs of about 125 words each). No references section is needed and avoid using quotes, as they take up too much paper real estate. You will submit your assignments as either MS Word or a PDF, U.S. Letter size (8.5’’ x 11”) only (NOT A4). You should also look out for any grammatical mistakes. For each assignment, you will use the theories and concepts from the weekly readings and apply them to some case study or organization that you are interested in studying. You can choose one or more theories to write about, but I would not use more than three.
Your task with these assignments is to evaluate how well these theories or concepts apply to and make sense of your empirical examples. This assessment may seem overwhelming at first but organizing your thoughts and writing succinctly is an essential skill for any researcher and it can be learned and is easier than you think.
Before attempting your assignments go through the instructions below, which explains how each of the paragraphs should be structured. Then, write down an outline consisting of several bullet points for each paragraph, based on the instructions. Next, turn your bullet points into sentences. Every paragraph should have thesis sentences, or sentences that summarize the paragraph’s main point. In other words, write down a top sentence that best summarizes what these bullet points are saying and go from there. Be sure to include a relevant topic sentence at or near the top of the paragraph. Be sure to also include a transition sentence to the next paragraph. Do not write in the first person (e.g., I believe that). Instead, engage with the theories or ideas. For instance, theory X is useful in situations related to Y, but is limited in other ways. It fails to consider Z or how A shapes B. How can X be known
First paragraph – Your introductory paragraph and your thesis statement Attempt this paragraph after you have an outline of all the other paragraphs apart from the concluding paragraph. This paragraph is the most important. If you do not have a
well-written and structured introduction paragraph that showcases your central argument (i.e., what is your thesis?), then the rest of your work is wasted. I highly recommend outlining and structuring the other paragraphs first (apart from the conclusion) before attempting to formally write your main paragraph. It explains what the paper is about and why it is important. It should present your argument and hint at the evidence you will use to make your point.
Structure of Paragraph One:
• Your thesis sentence for your paper.
• Sentences introducing your empirical example and your theories, along with how you will use these theories in the context of your example.
• Concluding sentence that broadly outlines what you plan to do in the subsequent paragraphs and sets up the transition to the next paragraph.
Second paragraph – A brief overview of your empirical example
Your first task is to identify the empirical case you will apply your theories to. Here, you are not developing your own theory, but you are (in a way) developing a hypothesis. You will be given one or more empirical examples for each assignment to apply perspectives and concepts towards.
Structure of Paragraph Two:
• Topic sentence summarizing your empirical example.
• Supporting descriptive sentences that explains, at a high level, your case, focusing on the points that you will later bring up in your analysis section.
• Concluding sentence that transitions to the next paragraph. Third paragraph – An analytic synthesis of your chosen theory
Here, you will analyze (take apart) the various ideas in the readings. After going through the readings and the lectures, start by writing down around bullet points summarizing the theories you selected in your own words. Explain it in the easiest and fastest way possible. In analysis, a general first step in a theory application assignment is to make certain you understand the theory. You should be able to state the theory concisely. You should also specify the causal relationship (X->Y) or the causal model (which might involve multiple variables and relationships). You will deconstruct the theories to their core elements and then find connections and dissimilarities as it will relate (in the next few paragraphs) to your example.
Structure of Paragraph Three (Synthesis):
• Topic sentence commenting on what is the theme/what is in common among this theory?
• Supporting sentence that reinforce your topic sentence • Concluding sentence that transitions to the next paragraph.
Excellent paragraphs should display sharp and insightful connections and contrasts among themes in the theories that reveals a deep understanding.
Fourth and fifth paragraph – Application of the theory to your example
While the thesis is the most important paragraph, this is the “heart” of the memo, as it is where your analysis resides. Theory application assignments generally require you to look at empirical phenomena through the lens of theory. Ask yourself, what would the theory predict (“have to say”) about a particular situation. According to the theory, if particular conditions are present or you see a change in a particular variable, what outcome should you expect? Clearly understanding all the parts of a theory helps you ensure that you are applying the theory correctly to your case. For example, you can ask whether your case fits the theory’s assumptions and scope conditions. Most importantly, however, you should single out the main argument or point (usually the causal relationship and mechanism) of the theory.
Structure of Paragraph Four:
• Point – Topic sentence that captures how the theory explains your empirical example. • Explain – “This is because…” (or similar phrase) • Example – List two or three instances that support your topic sentence. • Analyze – “This shows that…” or “Given this…” etc.
• Link – Concluding sentence that links back to your main point and transitions to the next paragraph. Structure of Paragraph Five:
• Point – Topic sentence arguing for why theory best explains your empirical example. • Include sentence analyzing the weaknesses of the theory and what they fail to fully explain with your example.
• Explain – “This is because…” (or similar phrase) • Example – List two or three instances that support your topic sentence.
• Analyze – “This shows that…” or “Given this…” etc.
• Link – Concluding sentence that links back to your main point and transitions to the next paragraph.
Final paragraph – Concluding paragraph
For your paper’s conclusion, be sure to add a few sentences at the end of your last paragraph to summarize your core thesis. The paragraph should remind the reader what your core argument is. In other words, if your reader takes away one big point from your paper, what would it be? Excellent conclusions should be clear and concise recapitulations of the main points in the paper, one that leaves the reader with the paper’s central thesis, with no grammatical errors.
Structure of Paragraph Six:
• Topic sentence recapitulating your thesis.
• Supporting sentences outlining how your theories both elucidated and obfuscated your empirical example.
• Concluding sentence. for sure or captured with data?