# Week 5: Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation: t-Test and ANOVA

#### Week 5: Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation: t-Test and ANOVA

Statistics provide a variety of information that can shape healthcare. Statistics can indicate disparity in care, effectiveness of treatments plans, and predict future outcomes. As a future DNP-prepared nurse, understanding how to analyze and interpret statistics will provide you the opportunity to utilize research in directing patient care and implementing procedures to ultimately improve patient success.

When comparing patients, treatment methods, or healthcare practices, it will be important to consider differences amongst groups. Statistics give us the opportunity to explore and determine these differences to properly analyze the data, make recommendations, or determine treatment options. As a DNP-prepared nurse, using statistics to determine differences may assist you in making the best decisions for your patients and practice.

This week, you will examine the use of inferential statistics in research. You will also consider the strengths and weaknesses of using both t-tests and ANOVA.

### Learning Objectives

Students will:

Analyze the use of t-tests, ANOVA, and inferential statistics in research and evidence-based practice
Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of inferential statistics in supporting evidence-based practice
Interpret results and output from t-tests and ANOVA
Summarize ANOVA Statistics

# Discussion: t-Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice

You are the DNP-prepared nurse responsible for overseeing staffing for the telehealth services provided at your practice. To determine the number of nurses that you might need for these services, you must determine how many patients might be interested in using the telehealth services versus the traditional clinical practice setting. For a week, you ask each patient visiting the practice his or her interest in setting up a visit via telehealth services. At the conclusion of the week, you use this data and reasoning to develop a statistic of the population interested in telehealth services. You have successfully used inferential statistics to help guide your decision-making for your practice.

Photo Credit: fizkes / Adobe Stock

The scenario outlined provides a random sampling and assumptions to develop a conclusion. With assumptions, and in this case, a small random sampling, this scenario is ripe with the possibility of error. However, how might inferential statistics be used in a valid and credible way?

The design of a study determines the validity of the results, and if done following appropriate techniques, inferential statistics can determine clear differences and help researchers to form conclusions. In your Discussion, you will focus on two forms of identifying differences in groups: t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources and reflect on a healthcare issue of interest to find a research article in which to analyze the use of inferential statistical analysis. Reflect on how the study was comprised, the validity of the findings, and whether or not it increased the study’s application to EBP

#### To Prepare:

Consider some of the important issues in healthcare delivery or nursing practice today. Bring to mind the topics to which you have been exposed through previous courses in your program of study, as well as any news items that have caught your attention recently. Select one topic to focus on for this Discussion.
Review journal, newspaper, and/or internet articles that may provide credible information on your selected topic. Then, select one research article to focus on for this Discussion that used inferential statistical analysis (either a t-test or ANOVA) to study the topic.
With information from the Learning Resources in mind, evaluate the purpose and value of the research study discussed in your selected article and consider the following questions:

Who comprised the sample in this study?
What were the sources of data?
What inferential statistic was used to analyze the data collected (t-test or ANOVA)?
What were the findings?

Ask yourself: How did using an inferential statistic bring value to the research study? Did it increase the study’s application to evidence-based practice?

##### By Day 3 of Week 5

Post a brief description of the topic that you selected for this Discussion. Summarize the study discussed in your selected research article and provide a complete APA citation. Be sure to include a summary of the sample studied, data sources, inferential statistic(s) used, and associated findings. Then, evaluate the purpose and value of this particular research study to the topic. Did using inferential statistics strengthen or weaken the study’s application to evidence-based practice? Why or why not? Be specific and provide examples.

##### By Day 6 of Week 5

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
Suggest an alternative perspective based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Week 5 Discussion Rubric

##### Post by Day 3 of Week 5 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 5

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 5 Discussion

# Assignment: t-Tests and ANOVA

You are a DNP-Prepared nurse tasked with evaluating patient care at your practice compared to patient care at affiliated practices. You have noticed that a key complaint from your patients concerns the wait times associated with each patient visit. Based on these complaints, you have decided to compare the wait times at your practice to the wait times at affiliated practices. After recording the wait times at each practice, for 50 individual patients at each practice, you are now prepared to analyze your data. What approach will you use to analyze the data?

Photo Credit: Dave and Les Jacobs / Blend Images / Getty Images

In the scenario provided, you might decide to use, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) approach.  “ANOVA is a statistical procedure that compares data between two or more groups or conditions to investigate the presence of differences between those groups on some continuous dependent variable” (Gray & Grove, 2020). ANOVA is often a recommended statistical technique, as it has low chance of error for determining differences between three or more groups.

For this Assignment, analyze the ANOVA statistics provided in the ANOVA Exercises SPSS Output document. Examine the results to determine the differences and reflect on how you would interpret these results.

Reference: Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

#### To Prepare:

Review the Week 5 ANOVA Exercises SPSS Output provided in this week’s Learning Resources.
Review the Learning Resources on how to interpret ANOVA results to determine differences.
Consider the results presented in the SPSS output and reflect on how you might interpret the results presented.

#### The Assignment: (2–3 pages)

Summarize your interpretation of the ANOVA statistics provided in the Week 5 ANOVA Exercises SPSS Output document.

Note: Interpretation of the ANOVA output should include identification of the p-value to determine whether the differences between the group means are statistically significant.
Be sure to accurately evaluate each of the results presented (descriptives, ANOVA results, and multiple comparisons using post-hoc analysis)

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

#### By Day 7

Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 5.

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 5 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 5 Assignment You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer Find the document you saved as “WK5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Week 5 Assignment Rubric

##### Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 5 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

##### Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 5

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 5 Assignment

# What’s Coming Up in Week 6?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will continue your exploration of quantitative data. You will explore correlations and consider when it is best to utilize this statistical approach for quantifying relationships between variables.

#### Next Week

The post Week 5: Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation: t-Test and ANOVA appeared first on Destiny Papers.